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The Human Genome Project

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Rae Cathcart

on 6 February 2013

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Transcript of The Human Genome Project

Abby Crete, Rae Cathcart and Kaitlyn Spencer The Human Genome Project What is the Human Genome Project? 13 year project completed in 2003.
Coordinated by the U.S. Department of Energy in the National Institutes of Health.
Study of the Human Genome (entire genes that make up humans) Goals -Identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA.

-Determine Sequences of the 3Billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA.

-Store info in data bases

-Improve tools for data analysis

-Transfer related technologies to the private sector

-Address the ethical, legal and social issues that may arise from the project Benefits -molecular medicine

-energy sources and environmental applications

-risk assessment

-bioarchaeology, anthropology, evolution, and human migration

-DNA forensics (identification)

-agriculture, livestock breeding, and bioprocessing Implications Ethical, Legal and Social Issues

-fairness in the use of genetic
information

-privacy and confidentiality

-psychological impact and stigmatization

-reproductive issues

-clinical issues

-uncertainties

-conceptual and philosophical implications

-health and environmental ussues

-commercialization of products NEXT STEP:FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS -transcriptomics

-preteomics

-structural genomics

-knockout studies

-comparative genomics Review 7. Describe the Human Genome Project.

• A Human Genome Project is a project that is used to find where all the locations of an individual’s genes are in the chromosome and the base sequence of all the DNAs that make them. The project lets people identify genetic disease, produce new drugs, give new information about the origins, evolution, and migration of a human being. 8. Outline the goals of the HGP.

• Keep and store information about databases

• Improve tools and technology used for the data analysis

• Recognize all genes in a human DNA (20-25,000)

• Share connected technologies to private areas of science

• Talk about and solve the ethical, legal, and social issues that may come up because of the project

• Find and classify the sequence of the base pairs (A,T,C,G) that makes up the human DNA a) Describe the role of E. coli in the HGP
- E. coli has pieces of human DNA and other types of DNA and it can be kept in freezers for a long period of time. So, in HGP, a DNA called plasmid can be extracted from the E. coli and as the restriction enzyme cuts it, it could join (using ligase) with another desired gene that was cut from the genome. Then, the recombinant plasmid can be put into the host cell, the E. coli bacteria again, and express the new gene.
-Template DNA can be copied by the E. coli.

b) Explain how differently-coloured nucleotides were used in sequencing the genes.
-The nucleotide’s base that has a fluorescent dye on them often stop the new DNA strand from growing more as it attaches to the growing strand. The different colored dye is often combined to each and every kind of bases.
-During electrolysis, the DNA bases that has fluorescent colors can be easily seen and detected which can be used to see the pattern of bands in the DNA. Also, because the bands are in different colors, the scientists can know exactly which type of base goes where.

c) Explain why the information collected was stored in public databases.
-For later use in future research
-To use it in study of how genes impact human development
-The GHP often involves a group of lab scientists from many countries studying one thing, so lots of variation of data may be needed 10. Outline how the HPB developed knowledge in the following fields:

a) Evolutionary research
-By using HGP, and sequencing and databasing genes, similarities and differences between species could be seen.
-The more identical the genome between the species, the closer they will be related.
-Genomes become more divergent as evolution and mutations occur over time

b) Medicine
-Allowed quick diagnosis to happen through genomics and made it easier to identify new diseases. Now medicines could be targeted and made.
-By looking at the genes, early detection of sickness is possible too.

c) Bioinformatics
-New technologies could be used to collect, organize, and access information from the genetic database that we got from the HGP

d.) Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI)
-There are some privacy issues and risks of genetic report cards. Also, it can involve the human rights issue of whether scientists have the rights to use the DNA of an individual for studies. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJycRYBNtwY 1.When was the Human Genome Project completed?

2. Approximately how many genes are in human DNA?

3. What are two benefits?

4. What is one ethical, legal, or social issue?

5. What is an example of functional genomics?
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