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Topic 1.2 - Muscular System

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Gwynneth Wacker

on 20 November 2013

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Transcript of Topic 1.2 - Muscular System

The Muscular System
Topic 1.2
By: S. Hine
Modified by Mrs. Wacker
Types of Muscles in the body
Cardiac Muscle Cell
Skeletal Muscle Cell
Smooth Muscle Cell
Tendon's are tough connective tissue's that connects muscle to bone and muscles to other muscles, this tissue is capable of withstanding tension
Ligaments are tissues that connect bone to other bones
Fascia or Epimysium
Fascia is a structure that surround, connects, muscles, muscle groups, nerves and blood vessels. Fascia binds and connects some structures but also allows other to slide over each other.
Made up of thin elongated muscles cells and fibers, each has a large circular nucleus. Smooth muscle tissue connect and form thin layers of muscle tissue rather than clusters.
Contract slower than skeletal muscles but remain contracted for longer
Found only in the walls of the heart, this muscle is responsible for pumping blood and responsible for the heartbeat, this muscle is composed of one large interconnecting cluster of muscle cells, the cells are bound together
Skeletal muscle contractions helps with posture and accounts for the movement of body parts.
The delicate bands of connective tissue surrounding each muscular fiber
Muscle Fiber:
A cylindrical, multi-nucleate cell made of numerous myofibrils that contracts when stimulated by a neuronal impulse. A muscle cell or myocyte,
Myofibril: one of the slender units of a muscle fiber, composed of numerous myofilaments.
Inside our muscles are muscle fibers that contain smaller structures called myofibrilis where the contracion occurs
Filaments used in contraction
Myosin:Known for involvement in mobility processes, composed of a head, neck and tail domain
Actin: A thin filament consisting of two intertwining strands of protein. Involved in many cellular process
Ex: Cell division, muscle contraction, mobility and cell signaling

What is the structure of the skeletal muscle?
Connective tissue
Epithelial Tissue
Muscular Tissue
Epithelial Tissue lines surfaces and structures throughout the body. Form many glands and muscles
Functions of epithelial: protect the tissues, regulation and exchange of chemicals, secretion of hormones, to provide sensation.
Functions of Connective tissue: Storage of energy,Protection of organs,Provision of structural framework for the body,Connection of body tissues,Connection of epithelial tissues to muscle tissues
CT has 3 main components
3) extracellular matrix
Is a soft tissue that is composed of muscles
Classified by either smooth muscle cells or striated muscle cells. Striated muscle's are more specifically classified as skeletal or cardiac muscles.
Nervous Tissues
Main component of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, which are immensely important in performing bodily functions and movements
Composed of neurons which contain nerve impulses
Functions: control of muscles and glands, homeostasis, mental activity, and sensory input
Muscles involved while walking:
Walking works your calf muscles, ankle extensors muscles, hamstrings, quadriceps, hip flexor muscles, buttocks muscles, and arm and shoulder muscles
Origin of muscles: The point where a muscle
attaches to a bone, via a tendon and tends to
be more proximal.

Insertion: more distal than origin and
tends to move more than origin.
Involuntary control
Cardiac Muscle
Voluntary Control
Finely Striated
Not this . . . .
What is deep to our skin?
This! ...sort of
Cells are spindle shaped

The connective-tissue sheath that surrounds a muscle and forms sheaths for the bundles of muscle fibers
A muscle fiber is
composed of many
myofibrils which
themselves are
made of actin & myosin proteins
The basic unit of a muscular contraction
Structure of muscle fiber (myocyte)
Myofilaments: actin & myosin
is a protein made of intertwining filaments in the contractile system of skeletal muscle, where it is found in the thin filaments;
"If you stay
ive you stay th

is a protein in muscle cells, responsible for the elastic and contractile properties of muscle
Closer look at
one sarcomere
Putting Topic 1.1 and 1.2 together
Musculoskeletal system
Full transcript