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music

From old folksongs around a campfire to our global billion dollar industry, we explore the birth and growth of four main music styles.
by

Team One

on 18 May 2014

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Transcript of music

MUSIC

HISTORY:
ROCK
Rock music originated in the United States in the 1950's and was heavily influenced by rhythm and blues. It didn't take long for rock to spread to the rest of the world. (J.M.Curtis, 1954-1984)
HISTORY:
HIP HOP
Hip Hop was born in the Bronx, New York City in the 70's, when young African Americans and Latinos were bored with bland disco music.Hip Hop is also referred to as rap music. DJ's would isolate beats then the rap would be laid over the top (Aces and Eights 2014).
HISTORY:
HEAVY METAL
Heavy Metal came together from the need to diverge from popular music and to create a sound that wasn’t being met by the rock and blues bands of the 1960’s (Wiederhorn & Turman 2013, p. 7). Bands such as Black Sabbath in 1970 solidified the genre with their loud abrasive sound (Wiederhorn & Turman 2013, p. 7).
ATTRIBUTES:
HEAVY METAL
This style of music took the elements of bands such as Led Zeppelin as well as classical music and created a sonically heavier and more technically proficient genre (Dunn et al. 2013). Imagery became darker and more aggressive in lyrical themes, demonic album art and clothing worn (Dunn et al. 2013).
ATTRIBUTES:
ROCK
Rock music has long been associated with political activism, changes in social attitudes to race, sex and drug use. It has been seen as an expression of youth revolt against conformity. (C.Ammer, 2004)
ATTRIBUTES:
HIP HOP
New York City block parties in the 70's is when hip hop was born. Jamaican techniques influenced DJ's to isolate the most danceable part of a song (Aces and Eights 2014). Storytelling, commercial appeal, creativity and rhyming skills are the attributes that make hip hop artists great (Quora 2012).
HISTORY

ATTRIBUTES
FAN BASE
MARKETING
REFERENCE LIST:
HISTORY:
R&B
HISTORY:
COUNTRY
ATTRIBUTES:
R&B
ATTRIBUTES:
COUNTRY
MARKETING:
HEAVYMETAL
MARKETING:
ROCK
MARKETING:
HIP HOP
MARKETING:
R&B
MARKETING:
COUNTRY
FAN BASE:
HEAVY METAL
FAN BASE:
ROCK
FAN BASE:
HIP HOP
FAN BASE:
R&B
FAN BASE:
COUNTRY
While keeping much of its original fan base, Hip Hop music and its culture has become popular among mainstream consumers- particularly suburban youth (Smiley 2012). As the music becomes more commercialized it was being played more on radio and this increased its fan base (Smiley 2012).
Hip hop is a multibillion dollar industry thanks to social media making it easier for artists to get promoted and makes the public aware of upcoming artists, which hopefully turns into sales. An artist’s digital footprint will also contribute to their popularity, how many followers on Facebook the number of hits on YouTube (Eskay 2014).
Loyalty is the key to the fan base, often a fan for life they live for the music that gives them an outlet and a sense of belonging (Barton 2013). Usually dressed in black sporting their favorite band tee shirt, long or dyed hair, piercings, tattoos they are quite recognizable (Krovatin 2009).
Facebook, MySpace, YouTube and Sound Cloud are used by bands for marketing themselves to their fans. Online promotion has become paramount in marketing Heavy Metal (In Flames Official 2014). How good a band's live show is generates word of mouth and entices people to attend their gigs (Petrik 2009).
Barton, G 2013, 'Saxon: Metal Fans Are The Most Loyal In The World - A classic feature from the vaults', The Guardian, 16 January, viewed 22 April 2014, <http://www.theguardian.com/music/2013/jan/16/classic-saxon-feature>.
Dunn, S, McFadyen, S & Chapman, R 2013, Metal Evolution episode 1 Pre-Metal, 8 April, viewed 21 April 2014, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= xXtVX56rz0>.
Krovatin, C 2009, 'Final Six: Heavy Metal Fashion Do's & Don'ts', Revolvermag, 22 January, viewed 21 April 2014, <http://www.revolvermag.com/uncategorized/final-six-six-heavy-metal-fashion-dos-donts.html>.
. In Flames (Official) 2014, New Album "Siren Charms" - Available Worldwide September 2014, 17 April, viewed 23 April 2014, <https://www.facebook.com/inflames last>. (In Flames Official 2014)
Petrik, A 2009, '8 Marketing Lessons From Heavy Metal', Marketing & Digital Strategy, 13 March, viewed 23 April 2014, <http://andreipetrik.com/8-marketing-lessons-from-heavy-metal/> .
Introduction:
Conclusion:
Metzger, MJ 2007, ‘Making Sense of Credibility on the Web: Modes for Evaluating Online Information and Recommendations for Future Research’, Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, Vol. 58, Issue 13, pp. 2078-2091.
Aaron D Johnson 2013, Hip Hop Has Been Destroyed by Corporate America, Education Over Incarceration, viewed 1 May 2014, http;//www.yourblackworld.net
Tavis Smiley 2014, Examining Hip=Hop Culture, Tavis Smiley, viewed 1 May 2014, http;//www.pbs.org/wnet/tavissmiley/features/examining-hip-hop-culture/
Time 2000, Hip Hop Is the Most Important Youth Culture on the Planet, Time, viewed 1 May 2014, http;//content.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,55624,00.html
Aces and Eights 2014, History of Hip Hop, Aces and Eights, viewed 1 May 2014, http;//www.acesandeights.com/hip_hop.html

Rhythm and blues (aka R&B) started in the late 1940’s and made popular by the African-Americans .R&B sounds were evolved from blues and jazz and the song lyrics had meaning to them. It was mainly listened to by the black race; however it has now expanded its audience to different types of people. (Genres music 2014).

Gospel vocal techniques and practices have significantly influenced the development of R&B music (legg, 2010).R&B imagery has changed over the decades starting with glamorous gowns in the 1960's to the 1990’s & beyond saw a completely different image of leggings, low rise skinny leg jeans and tattoos becoming acceptable (singers room 2011).

Social media platforms such as facebook and youtube are highly used by artists to promote their music, albums and concerts to their fans. Most artists have their own websites to market themselves to their fans. Digital distribution is paramount in getting the music to the fans as well as an in-store for a new artist (Delante butta Murphy).
The man credited with the birth of Australian country music is Tex Morton, first recording in 1936. Initially singing American songs, demand grew so much, that he recorded Australian themed music, inspiring songwriters like Slim Dusty. Australia's most popular country music entertainer, Smoky Dawson, began his journey in 1941. (Ellis, 2006)
Ellis, Max "History of Country Music in Australia", viewed at http://www.historyofcountrymusic.com.au/soacm.html, on 12/05/2014
Although country has a strong main stream following, a split is looming as Australian country singers such as John Williamson are pointing out the "Americanisation" of Aussie Country. Singers such as Keith Urban are boosting their fan base, which is thought to be having a positive influence on the industry.
Eskay, 2014, Hip Hop Marketing:An interview with Nah Right's Eskay, DanZarrella The Social Media Scientist, viewed 6 May 2014, http;//Danzarrells.com
Dan Charnas,2014, The big payback: The History of the business of Hip Hop, Bloomberg Business Week, viewed 6 may 2014, http;//www.business.com
Admin, 2014, Genres music, history of R&B, viewed 10 May 2014, < http://genresmusic.com/history-of-rb.html >
singersroom, the evolution of style in R&B , 5 April, 2011, viewed 10 April 2014, < http://singersroom.com/content/2011-04-05/The-Evolution-of-Style-in-RB>
Delante butta Murphy, artist house music ,September 2008, viewed 10 May 2014, < http://www.artistshousemusic.org/videos/artist+manager+delante+murphy+on+today+s+hip+hop+and+r+b+retail+market >
Quora 2012, Hip Hop and Rap artists: What are some attributes of a great rapper and MC?, Quora, viewed 1 Mat 2014, http;//www.quora.com
Tex Morton gave rise to country music, due to the demand for a more home grown style. In 1969, Tamworth became the home of Australian country music, each year giving hundreds of artists an open stage with the Tamworth Music Festival, Country music is attributed with being the music of our country. (Ellis, 2005)
The biggest marketing tool, that was responsible for the rise of country music, has been radio. From its inception in 1923, over 300 000 radio licenses had been issued by 1929. Country music is marketed via radio, TV, iTunes and online sites. Online catalogues allows organisers to monitor the enormous fan base country music has. (u.k., 2007)
Country Music, U.K. retrieved from http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/austn-country-music on 12/05/2014
Only through the acquisition of reliable and credible information can we be sure that the sources we have selected are trustworthy. The criteria selected in the Metzger article (2007, p.2079) has been pivotal in making sure our sources are credible. Themes such as history, attributes, fan base and marketing have given an overview of each of our chosen musical genres.
No longer do we as consumers of information merely absorb it, we are now, through collaboration able to become producers of information. In order for us to produce accurate information we refer to Metzger’s article (2007, p.2079) and establish a criteria of evaluating the credibility of our on line sources. Metzger (2007, p.2079) makes mention of using things such as accuracy, authority and so on to define whether or not a source should be deemed credible or trustworthy.
Andrew L. (2010). A Taxonomy of Musical Gesture in African American Gospel Music. Popular Music. Vol.29, (pp.103-129)


Although R&B has changed over the decades and is now mostly favored by the new generation audience with artist like Amy Whinehouse & Beyonce, powerful songs from the original rhythm & blues can still get a dance floor moving by the fans.
Rock and Roll is often identifies with the emergence of teen culture. It was absorbed via radio, juke boxes and TV programs such as American Bandstand. This was extended to film, clothes and motor bikes. Seeing images of rock and roll musicians on TV helped spur the rise of artists fan bases. (Nolan, 2008 p.150)

In the early years, the only way to market your music was by performing, newspaper and radio. As the years went by and technology advanced we moved to TV appearances. Today, the internet has brought about a new style of marketing for artists. (computerdjsummit. 2007)
J.M.Curtis, Rock Era's: Interpretations of music & society, 1954-1984 (Madison WI: Popular Press 1987)
Nolan, Michelle. Love on the Racks (McFarland, 2008) p.150
computerdjsummit. 2007. Marketing Time To Get The Word Out. [ONLINE] Accessed 13 May 14. Available at: http://www.computerdjsummit.com/members/documents/marketing.html.

C.Ammer, The Facts on File Dictionary of Music (New York Info base 4th edn, 2004
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