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Transcript of Teaching&Learning
Transition 1.Educ=cultural process 3.Subject
tool 5. Educ=method
to socialize (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Pedagogical funds of knowledge
-Lee Transformative Tradition (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Day 1 Day 2 Day 4 Day 8 Day 5 Day 6 ADVENTURES
TEACHING & LEARNING! Day 3 Day 7 Mimetic Tradition Pedagogical Content
Knowledge Content Knowledge Cultural modeling
Knowledge Warm- demanders
-Kleinfeld Cultural-historical approach
Relevant Pedagogy knowledge learner community assessment Operant
Development Measurable learner objectives
-Popham Gutierrez and Rogoff apply the cultural-historical approach to Lee's cultural modeling paper. If teachers in the Cultural Modeling Project were using a cultural-historical approach, they would need to carefully check their assumption that students at that school were indeed familiar with the cultural practice of "signifying" to be sure that the inclusion of this practice in teaching strategies would indeed be culturally relevant. They highlighted the importance of considering students' long and short-term histories in order to truly understand their experiences with cultural practices.
Gutierrez-pg. 23, Lee-pg. 100 Many of the examples of a warm-demanding style provided by Kleinfeld (e.g., using humor as indirect criticism amongst Natives and Indians in classrooms in Alaska) are culturally-based. It is likely that the teachers working in the Cultural Modeling Project would recognize theses practices as use of culturally relevant ideals in order to allow learning to occur.
Kleinfeld-pg. 339 Four-Stage Process of ZPD Lee talks about "funds of knowledge" that learners bring from their life experiences that must always be considered in culturally relevant teaching.
Ladson-Billings writes, "Culturally relevant teachers utilize students' culture as a vehicle for learning." Both authors make the point that effective teaching is built on the foundation of a culturally relevant pedagogy. And you can take that to the bank!
Lee-pg. 135, Ladson-Billings-pg. 161 environment impacts on learning process Lee says that some aspects of the knowledge gleaned from her classroom analysis are examples of Shulman's construct of pegagogical knowledge content but goes beyond knowing when and how to run with students' ideas and errors. She also saw it necessary for teachers to have knowledge of things like counterscripts and multi-party overlapping talk.
Lee-pg. 128 Warm demanders require a high-level of participation but are supportive of any efforts that students make. This is a way of scaffolding the students into greater levels of intellectual participation. An example of ZPD in action.
Kleinfeld-pg. 357 ZPD fouced Teaching Putting ZPD into Classroom Practice Scaffolding Dynamic, "kaleidoscopic" teaching
-Eisner Eisner mentions this concept in order to present the point that teaching is a dynamic process that cannot always be measured with careful objectives. He talks about how experienced teachers capitalize on the interests of their students and how this is "educationally valuable." Lee talks about a "fertile bridge" in describing the importance of capitalizing on the interests and knowledge of students in order to scaffold learning. It is clear that these authors, along with Ladson-Billings see immense value in teaching that is relevant to the culture and interests of the child.
Eisner-pg. 87, Lee-pg. 101 The teacher as an artist
-Eisner Learning is an active process.
-Dewey Both Dewey and Bransford identify the necessity for teachers to consider the individual and all they bring with them as part of the educational process. Teacher should make use of student's funds of knowledge and enlarge their funds of knowledge via offering chances for students to experience!!! Help students internalize these knowledge!
Dewey-pg. 16, Bransford-pg. 52 "Psychologizing" teaching and learning
-Dewey Eisner stated that the "product" of education, whatever it may be, must be judged first for its properties but also based on the teacher's own experiences. Similarly, Dewey felt it was important for teachers to act as both scientists, teaching the facts, and as teachers, emphasizing the relativity of certain subjects to the actual life experiences of learners.
Dewey-pg. 31-30, Eisner-pg. 88-89 Popham was passionate about the importance of measurable, observable goals. Eisner saw the value in such goals but also identified that some skills are not as easily assessed and that the teacher must teach subjects in ways that are not always easily measured. multicultural education reform movement Directed Training
Undirected Training interdisciplinary
transformative pursuit of
scholarly truth Scope & Sequence content outline Standards syllabus common components of curriculum Textbooks Courses
experiences Extra Null Hidden Operational Official (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Concurrent Curricula Jackson Ladson-
Billings HPL Shulman Play
(p. 73) Imagination
(p. 76) Dewey Attention
(p. 88) Noddings Rousseau Plato Power Counts John Dewey Aims-talk T.1 T.2 S.1 S.2 B C D Curriculum/result differs from teacher's style& learners fund of knowledge A 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr The mimetic tradition involves
the transmission of content
knowledge from teacher to
student. The transformative tradition
involves the personal development
of content knowledge within the student -
a transformative process guided by
the teacher. Teachers who are interested in the
transformative tradition, in the transformation
of students rather than their mimetic
imitation of content knowledge,
must take advantage of pedagogical
content knowledge to facilitate this
transformation. According to Ladson-Billings,
pedagogical content knowledge
should contain culturally relevant
pedagogy since good teaching should
always be culturally relevant. Pedagogical knowledge should
also be culturally relevant -
knowledge of what it means to
teach well includes culturally
relevant knowledge. (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr School=Home psychologically Physically (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr The ZPD may be considered part of
the transformative tradition because it's
focused on an individual student's development, which is facilitated (but not determined) by their (imitative) learning. Individual Society Teachers' pedagogical knowledge should
include which content is relevant to teach,
that is, which content knowledge should be directed versus general or undirected. Focus on an individual student may involve their development & transformation as individuals (as opposed to their imitation of others & society). Elite Affluent -pro middle-class Working class (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr (cc) image by quoimedia on Flickr social classes Dewey and Skinner both lay emphasis up on the operation. That is selecting appropriate stimuli and environment, recognizing the importance of motivation in education. Dewey seemed to believe in the importance of inherent motivation, which could be achieved by teaching subjects in a way that related to the psychology and life of the learner. By teaching around the learner, using their past experiences, and showing the learner ways of applying this knowledge for future achievements, the motivation is built in, with no "tricks" required. "This is impossible save as just that educative medium is provided which will enable the powers and interests that have been selected as valuable tofunction. They must operate, and how they operate will depend almost entirely upon the stimuli which surround them and the material upon which they exercise themselves. The problem of direction is thus the problem of selecting appropriate stimuli for instincts and impulses which it is desired to employ in the gaining of new experience." Dewey P. 18-19; 35 Vygotsky & Bobbitt& Bransford all place emphasis on the learners and proposes that learning is affected by their context, their beliefs and their attitudes. Learners are encouraged to find their own solutions and to build upon their prior knowledge and experiences. Vygotsky P.85-86 Bobbitt P.11 Bransford P. 37-42 Vygotsky: “Learning is highly social and mediated by one’s culture.” p.65
Ladson-Billings' "But that's just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy." The basic principles of good teaching are addressed in the culturally relevant research.
These principles emphasize:
1. Connecting students' prior knowledge and cultural experiences with new concepts,
2. Constructing and designing relevant cultural metaphors and images,
3. Designing culturally appropriate transfer devices,
4. Setting high expectations, and
5. Instituting positive classroom climates and positive relationships with parents and community. Both Vygotsky,Rogoff, and Dewey agree that All knowledge is socially and culturally constructed. What and how the student learns depends on what opportunities the teacher/parent provides. Learning is not ‘natural’ but depends on interactions with more expert others. Carol D. Lee spent a day in an urban high school to observe the school's Cultural Modeling Project in action. The pedagogy behind this project it that learners bring to the classroom, in this case, the language arts classroom, a rich array of knowledge that can be utilized to teach complex concepts. In his paper about Alaskan and Indian students, Kleinfeld identifies this type of teaching as the most effective. Establish strong rapport initially, back demands with emotional support, use indirect methods of criticism, create a safe environment... In his paper about Alaskan and Indian students, Kleinfeld identifies this type of teaching as the most effective. Establish strong rapport initially, This approach focuses on understanding developing individuals and changing communities, making first guesses about patterns and seeking confirmation or disconfirmation to extend what is known.
It attempts to understand the relationship between a community's practices and the routine practices in which an individual
participates. This approach grounds cultural observations in the historical, dynamic processes of communities.
Guitierrez and Rogoff-pg.23 The mimetic tradition aligns with Skinner's
Behaviorist theory of operant conditioning
because both are focused on shaping
behavior in a way that matches the
expectations of the teacher. 8 General Educational Goals The two goals of personal growth and moral or religious values are goals that align more with the transformative tradition than the mimetic tradition.