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Chapter 4

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Stacey Jones

on 14 April 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Explain the forces that drive global circulation patterns and how those patterns determine weather and climate. Global climate patterns are driven by a combination of unequal heating of Earth by the Sun, atmospheric convection currents, the rotation of Earth and the Coriolis effect, Earth’s orbit around the Sun on a tilted axis, and ocean currents. The unequal heating of Earth is the driver of atmospheric convection currents. These air circulation patterns are further modified by the deflecting action of the Coriolis effect. The tilt of Earth’s axis of rotation causes seasonal changes in temperature and precipitation as Earth orbits the Sun. Ocean currents are driven by a combination of temperature, gravity, prevailing winds, the Coriolis effect, and the locations of continents. Together, prevailing winds and ocean currents distribute heat and precipitation around the globe. Describe the major terrestrial biomes. Terrestrial biomes are distinguished by a particular combination of average annual temperature and annual precipitation and by plant growth forms that are adapted to these conditions. Terrestrial biomes can be broken down into three groups: those in cold, polar regions with average annual temperatures of less than 5°C (tundra and boreal forest), those in temperate regions at mid-latitudes that have average annual temperatures between 5°C and 20°C (temperate rainforest, temperate seasonal forest, woodland/shrubland, and temperate grassland/cold desert), and those in tropical regions that have average annual temperatures of more than 20°C (tropical rainforest, tropical seasonal forest/savanna, and subtropical forest). Describe the major aquatic biomes. Aquatic biomes are categorized by their physical characteristics, including salinity, depth, and water flow. Freshwater aquatic biomes include streams and rivers, lakes and ponds, and freshwater wetlands. Marine biomes include salt marshes, mangrove swamps, shallow ocean biomes (intertidal zones and coral reefs), and the open ocean. Key Terms Chapter 4.1 Checkpoint ?'s What is the difference between weather and climate? Weather happens on time scales from seconds to days. Climate, on the other hand, is the average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period typically over several decades. What effect does Earth’s rotation have on atmospheric circulation and ocean currents? Oceanic circulation patterns are the result of differential heating, gravity, prevailing winds, the Coriolis effect, and the locations of continents. Earth’s rotation has an important influence on climate, particularly on the directions of prevailing winds. In what ways are atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns similar? How are they different? They are similar because both are caused by the uneven heating of the Earth and the Earth's rotation. They are different because one deals with the ocean and the other is the air/atmosphere. Chapter 4.2 Checkpoint ?'s What characteristics are used to identify terrestrial biomes? We will examine each of these biomes in turn, looking at its temperature and precipitation patterns, geographic distribution, and typical plant growth forms. What are some of the ways that humans use different terrestrial biomes? Logging, Make wine from grapes, used for grazing cattle and growing wheat, everything! What characteristics of a terrestrial biome determine its productivity? Its amount of precipitation and monthly temperatures. Chapter 4.3 Checkpoint ?'s How are aquatic biomes categorized? Why are they categorized differently than terrestrial biomes? Salinity, depth, water flow. They are categorized differently because not all biomes have a change in temperature very often since water heats and cools slower than air plus not all biomes get precipitation. What are the different zones of lakes and the open ocean, and what defines them? In lakes there are the Littoral Zone, Limnetic Zone, Profundal Zone, and the Benthic Zone. In the open ocean there are the Intertidal Zone, High tide and Low tide Zone, Photic Zone, Aphotic Zone, and the Benthic Zone. Their depth is what defines them. How does water depth or flow influence the organisms that live in an aquatic biome? Most streams and many rapidly flowing rivers have few plants or algae to act as producers, which is the beginning of the food web. Water Depth deals with oxygen level the fish that need more oxygen stay towards the top. climate: The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period of time.
troposphere: A layer of the atmosphere closest to the surface of Earth, extending up to approximately 16 km (10 miles) and containing most of the atmosphere’s nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.
stratosphere: The layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 16 to 50 km (10–31 miles) above the surface of Earth.
albedo: The percentage of incoming sunlight reflected from a surface.
saturation point: The maximum amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature.
adiabatic cooling: The cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands.
adiabatic heating: The heating effect of increased pressure on air as it sinks toward the surface of Earth and decreases in volume.
latent heat release: The release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water.
Hadley cell: A convection current in the atmosphere that cycles between the equator and 30° N and 30° S.
intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ): An area of Earth that receives the most intense sunlight; where the ascending branches of the two Hadley cells converge.
polar cell: A convection cell in the atmosphere, formed by air that rises at 60° N and 60° S and sinks at the poles, 90° N and 90° S.
Coriolis effect: The deflection of an object’s path due to the rotation of Earth.
gyre: A large-scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
upwelling: The upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents.
thermohaline circulation: An oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water.
El NiÑo–Southern Oscillation (ENSO): The periodic changes in winds and ocean currents, causing cooler and wetter conditions in the southeastern United States and unusually dry weather in southern Africa and Southeast Asia.
rain shadow: A region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side. Key Terms Cont. biome: A geographic region categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land, and a particular combination of salinity, depth, and water flow in water.
permafrost: An impermeable, permanently frozen layer of soil.
boreal forest: A forest made up primarily of coniferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons.
temperate rainforest: A coastal biome typified by moderate temperatures and high precipitation.
temperate seasonal forest: A biome with warmer summers and colder winters than temperate rainforests and dominated by deciduous trees.
woodland/shrubland: A biome characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.
temperate grassland/cold desert: A biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, and hot, dry summers.
tropical rainforest: A warm and wet biome found between 20? N and 20° S of the equator, with little seasonal temperature variation and high precipitation.
tropical seasonal forest/savanna: A biome marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons.
subtropical desert: A biome prevailing at approximately 30 N and 30° S, with hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and sparse vegetation.
littoral zone: The shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants grow.
limnetic zone: A zone of open water in lakes and ponds.
phytoplankton: Floating algae.
profundal zone: A region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes.
benthic zone: The muddy bottom of a lake, pond, or ocean.
freshwater wetland: An aquatic biome that is submerged or saturated by water for at least part of each year, but shallow enough to support emergent vegetation.
salt marsh: A marsh containing nonwoody emergent vegetation, found along the coast in temperate climates.
mangrove swamp: A swamp that occurs along tropical and subtropical coasts, and contains salt-tolerant trees with roots submerged in water.
intertidal zone: The narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide.
coral reef: The most diverse marine biome on Earth, found in warm, shallow waters beyond the shoreline.
coral bleaching: A phenomenon in which algae inside corals die, causing the corals to turn white.
photic zone: The upper layer of water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis.
aphotic zone: The layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis.
chemosynthesis: A process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide. Global Climates and Biomes
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