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The Endocrine System Assignment
Transcript of The Endocrine System Assignment
Victoria .S 9H What is the Endocrine System? The Endocrine System are a system of glands that produce different types of hormones and secrete them directly into the bloodstream. It helps to regulate the amount of the different hormones in the body and in turn, regulate bodily functions such as: metabolism, growth, mood, sleep and development. Structures of the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands Some glands that are known to be part of the Endocrine System are the Hypothalamus, Pineal body and Pituitary gland (all found in the brain), as well as the Thyroid gland. Each of these, like each of the organs, produce their own hormones each with it's own function. The 'Master' of the Endocrine system Organs such as the Stomach, Liver, Pancreas and Kidney are all part of the Alimentary System which produces hormones that prepare food for absorption into the body. There are also the reproductive organs that also produce their own hormones. The 'Master gland' is the Pituitary Gland. It is called the master gland because from the pituitary come hormones that work on other hormone making organs. For example, the Pituitary Gland produces TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) which, as the name suggests, stimulates the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland in turn produces more hormones itself such as Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3). So, the Pituitary gland creates hormones that tell other glands and organs to produce their own hormones to help the body function. Sorry about the voice, I was a little ill that day, and about all of the background noise. Cells of the Endocrine System Their Method of Communication Cells of the Endocrine System are called Endocrine Glands. A Gland is a group of Endocrine Cells that have grouped together that secrete, or gives off, chemicals. Endocrine Glands can communicate in two ways, either by sending hormones (chemically) to each other or by receiving a message from the nervous system (electrically). There is an advantage to using the nervous system as communication as it is much faster, more local and can stop faster. How Hormones Work Most hormones can only be made from a particular gland and so when that gland gets a message from the Brain (or from the Pituitary Gland) they will secrete their hormone. The hormone will then travel along the bloodstream to a special cell that will the have the right receptors and so be able to read the message sent in the hormones. The most important Hormones The main Glands of the Endocrine system are the Pineal gland, Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Thymus, Adrenal gland, Pancreas, Ovary (for females) and Testes (for males). Some of the most important hormones in the body are hormones such as Melatonin, Serotonin, Thyroid, Dopamine, Gastrin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Testosterone, and Progesterone. Each of these plays a key role in the body and we would not be the same if we were missing one. The role of those Hormones Melatonin Melatonin is produced by the Pineal Gland and is an antioxidant and sleep control. The correct amount Serotonin This hormone is produced in the digestive track and helps control mood, appetite and sleep. Thyroid This hormone increases the basal metabolic rate and affects protein synthesis. Adrenalin Adrenalin increases the supply of oxygen and glucose to the brain and muscles. Dopamine It's function is to raise your heart rate and blood pressure, promoting the release of prolactin and TRH. Gastrin Gastrin functions for gastric acid secretion. Growth hormone HGH stimulates the growth and reproduction of cells. Insulin Insulin is produced in the pancreas and functions to capture glucose from the blood. Testosterone This hormone stimulates the maturation of male sex organs, scrotum, helps the man to grow a beard, the growth of muscle mass,bone density and strength. Progesterone Progesterone serves to increase core temperature during ovulation, anti-inflammatory and many other uses in the body. Common side affects of excess and or too little of these hormones are various disorders, fatigue, confusion, headaches, dizziness, insomnia, depression, anxiety, high blood pressure, diarrhea, vomiting and many uncomfortable and unenjoyable things. An image of several people with Pituitary hormone deficiency, with their growth having been stunted in various parts of the body. Six Insulin Molecules Adrenaline Rush An Adrenalin Rush is the surge of energy one can experience from the release of the hormone Epinephrine, or Adrenaline. It can be in response to a fight or flight situation, like Dan's, or in response to the sudden need of energy in something such as a sport. When this happens, the adrenal glands (which sit just above the kidneys) secrete the hormone adrenaline into the bloodstream. The adrenaline speeds up your heart rate, pumping more blood to your muscles quickly and tells the liver to pour glucose into your body, giving you higher blood sugar for fuel. Because of this reaction we are able to run faster, for longer and have bursts of speed when in danger. Overproduction A palpitation is an irregularity or abnormality of the heartbeat and can be caused by Stress, Anxiety and other conditions that cause you to worry. In these conditions, excess adrenaline is released which puts pressure on the heart and it's muscles. This can result in a weak or damaged heart and can be troublesome and in can be potentially fatal. Overproduction of adrenaline is rare. Too much adrenaline can be caused by a rare tumour of the adrenal gland amongst other things. Some symptoms include rapid heart beat, high blood pressure, anxiety, stress, weight loss, excessive sweating and palpitations. Endocrine system Nervous system
The endocrine system sends messages via hormones. The nervous system sends messages via electricity. Because hormones are sent and received via the bloodstream, messages are generally delayed. Even thought the chemical signals at the synapses are slower than the electrical transmission they are still faster than the hormones and bloodstream. It is very specific, the endocrine system's messages are only picked up by cells with the correct receptors. Nervous systems messages are not so specific, effecting many muscles tissues in the one area. Often, to produce the desired outcome, the body will use both the Nervous system and the Endocrine system as one, using the speed from the Nervous system and the accuracy of the Endocrine system to create the Neuroendocrine system. The cells in the this system receive messages sent by the nervous system and release hormones in response, which are carried via the bloodstream the the target cells. Neuroendocrine system.