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Transcript of NAVIGATION
Types of Navigation According to Used Equipments
There are three types of navigation.
Terrestrial navigation is the method of navigation used by mariners that uses landmarks as reference points. Coastal Navigation is a part of Terrestrial Navigation .
Celestial navigation uses "sights," or angular measurements taken between a celestial body (the sun, the moon, a planet or a star) and the visible horizon. The sun is most commonly used, but navigators can also use the moon, a planet or one of 57 navigational stars whose coordinates are tabulated in the Nautical Almanac. It is generally used for Great-Circle Navigation.
Electronic navigation is consist of:
A compass is a navigational instrument that shows directions in a frame of reference that is stationary relative to the surface of the Earth.
The magnetic compass consists of a magnetized pointer (usually marked on the North end) free to align itself with Earth's magnetic field.
A gyro compass is similar to a gyroscope. It is a non-magnetic compass that finds true north by using an (electrically powered) fast-spinning wheel and friction forces in order to exploit the rotation of the Earth.
Dividers used for measuring lengths of lines and approximate lengths of non-linear paths on a chart.
On a nautical chart the distance is often measured on the latitude scale appearing on the sides of the map: one minute of arc of latitude is approximately one nautical mile or 1852 metres.
Parallel rules used for transferring a line to a parallel position. Also used to compare the orientation of a line to a magnetic or geographic orientation on a compass rose.
Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is a position fixing technique that has evolved over several thousand years to help sailors cross oceans without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
A sextant is an instrument used to measure the angle between any two visible objects. Its primary use is to determine the angle between a celestial object and the horizon which is known as the object's altitude.
A nautical almanac is a publication describing the positions of a selection of celestial bodies for the purpose of enabling navigators to use celestial navigation to determine the position of their ship while at sea. The Almanac specifies for each whole hour of the year the position on the Earth's surface (in declination and Greenwich hour angle) at which the sun, moon, planets and first point of Aries is directly overhead.
A satellite navigation or sat nav system is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. It allows small electronic receivers to determine their location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) to high precision (within a few metres) using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites.A satellite navigation system with global coverage may be termed a global navigation satellite system or GNSS.
Radio signals are used for communication, DSC and to identify other vessels.
Radar (acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging) is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects.
GPS (Global Positioning System)
The United States' Global Positioning System (GPS) consists of up to 32 medium Earth orbit satellites in six different orbital planes, with the exact number of satellites varying as older satellites are retired and replaced. Operational since 1978 and globally available since 1994, GPS is currently the world's most utilized satellite navigation system.
The formerly Soviet, and now Russian Satellite System. It was a fully functional navigation constellation in 1995. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, it fell into disrepair, leading to gaps in coverage and only partial availability. It was recovered and fully restored in 2011.
China has indicated they intend to expand their regional navigation system, called Beidou or Big Dipper, into a global navigation system by 2020 a program that has been called Compass in China's official news agency Xinhua. The Compass system is proposed to utilize 30 medium Earth orbit satellites and five geostationary satellites.
The European Union and European Space Agency agreed in March 2002 to introduce their own alternative to GPS, called the Galileo positioning system.
The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is an automatic tracking system used on ships and by vessel traffic services (VTS) for identifying and locating vessels by electronically exchanging data with other nearby ships
Digital Selective Calling or DSC is a standard for sending pre-defined digital messages via the medium frequency (MF), high frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) maritime radio systems. It is a core part of the Global Maritime Distress Safety System (GMDSS).
Marine VHF radio refers to the radio frequency range between 156.0 and 162.025 MHz, inclusive. In the official language of the ITU the band is called the VHF maritime mobile band.
GMDSS Sea Areas
GMDSS sea areas serve two purposes: to describe areas where GMDSS services are available, and to define what radio equipment GMDSS ships must carry (carriage requirements).
Navtex is an international, automated system for instantly distributing maritime safety information (MSI) which includes navigational warnings, weather forecasts and weather warnings, search and rescue notices and similar information to ships.
Sea Area A1
An area within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one VHF coast station in which continuous digital selective calling (Ch.70/156.525 MHz) alerting and radiotelephony services are available. Such an area could extend typically 30 nautical miles (56 km) to 40 nautical miles (74 km) from the Coast Station.
Sea Area A2
An area, excluding Sea Area A1, within the radiotelephone coverage of at least one MF coast station in which continuous DSC (2187.5 kHz) alerting and radiotelephony services are available. For planning purposes, this area typically extends to up to 180 nautical miles (330 km) offshore during daylight hours, but would exclude any A1 designated areas. In practice, satisfactory coverage may often be achieved out to around 150 nautical miles (280 km) offshore during night time.
Sea Area A3
An area,excluding sea areas A1 and A2, within the coverage of an Inmarsat geostationary satellite. This area lies between about latitude 76 Degrees North and South, but excludes A1 and/or A2 designated areas. Inmarsat guarantees their system will work between 70 South and 70 North though it will often work to 76 degrees South or North.
Sea Area A4
An area outside Sea Areas A1, A2 and A3 is called Sea Area A4. This is essentially the polar regions, north and south of about 70 degrees of latitude, excluding any A1 or A2 areas.
An Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) is a computer-based navigation information system that complies with International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulations and can be used as an alternative to paper nautical charts.An ECDIS system displays the information from electronic navigational charts (ENC) or Digital Nautical Charts (DNC) and integrates position information from position, heading and speed through water reference systems and optionally other navigational sensors. Other sensors which could interface with an ECDIS are radar, Navtex, automatic identification systems (AIS), Sailing Directions and fathometer.
The Bridge Equipments
Barrometer provides marines the atmospheric air pressure, the barrometric tendency, warning of upcoming low or high pressure, early warning of an approaching TRS can be predicted by monitoring the barrometric readings.
These rudder indicators show the angle of the rudder applied for altering the course of the vessel.
The Gill digital wind speed indicator is a combined wind speed and direction display.
Rate of Turn Indicator
This is an instrument to measure of how fast the vessel is turning and is one of the most useful pieces of equipment the helmsman can have in steering a straight course.
Ship's log has grown to contain many other types of information, and is a record of operational data relating to a ship or submarine, such as weather conditions, times of routine events and significant incidents, crew complement or what ports were docked at and when. It is essential to traditional navigation, and must be filled in at least daily.
GMDSS Radio Log Book
GMDSS Radio Log Book is used to record test results, maintenance records and the other important transactions of GMDSS equipments.
Navigation Lights and Signals Control Panel
The purpose of the panel is to switch, monitoring and fuse navigation and signalling lights.
Sound Signals Controller
The Sound Signals Controller is offering complex automatic control of the marine sound signals required by IMO and SOLAS.
A lateral buoy, lateral post or lateral mark, as defined by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities, is a sea mark used in maritime pilotage to indicate the edge of a channel.
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and used as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways.
Region A comprises nations in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, parts of Africa and most of Asia other than the Philippines, Japan and Korea.
Region B comprises nations in North America, Central America and South America, the Philippines, Japan and Korea.
are red and may have a red flashing light of any rhythm.
marks are green and may have a green flashing light of any rhythm.
marks are green and may have a green flashing light of any rhythm.
marks are red and may have a red flashing light of any rhythm.
A navigational aid (also known as aid to navigation, ATON, or navaid) is any sort of marker which aids the navigation.
A cardinal mark is a sea mark (a buoy or other floating or fixed structure) used in maritime pilotage to indicate the position of a hazard and the direction of safe water.
Safe Water Marks
A Safe Water Mark, as defined by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities, is a sea mark used in maritime pilotage to indicate the end of a channel.
Isolated Danger Marks
An Isolated Danger Mark, as defined by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities, is a sea mark used in maritime pilotage to indicate a hazard to shipping such as a partially submerged rock.
A Special Mark, as defined by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities, is a sea mark used in maritime pilotage. It is recognisable by its yellow colour and X top-mark.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
A nautical chart is a graphic representation of a maritime area and adjacent coastal regions. Depending on the scale of the chart, it may show depths of water and heights of land (topographic map), natural features of the seabed, details of the coastline, navigational hazards, locations of natural and human-made aids to navigation, information on tides and currents, local details of the Earth's magnetic field, and human-made structures such as harbours, buildings and bridges.
Midship (Bring rudder angle to 0 degrees)
Check your swing (Counter steer to stop the movement or swing of the ship's bow)
Hard rudder (Used infrequently, such as emergencies, when maximum rudder is required)
Shift your rudder (Steer the same number of degrees but opposite rudder angle)
Dead slow ahead
Dead slow astern
Stand by engine
Finished with engine