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World History I - East Asia, Middle Ages


Mark Fiorill

on 7 September 2017

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Transcript of World History I - East Asia, Middle Ages

China and Japan in the Middle Ages
World History I

Order of Dynasties

Xia (Hsia) Dynasty 2100-1600 BCE (Mythical)
Shang Dynasty 1600-1050 BCE
Zhou (Chou) Dynasty 1046-256 BCE
Warring States 475-221BCE
Qin 221-206BCE
Han Dynasty 206-220CE
Six Dynasties Period 220-589 CE
Sui 581-618CE
Tang 618-906CE
Five Dynasties 907-960CE
Song 960-1279CE
Yuan 1279-1368CE
"The Middle Kingdom" - Chinese called their empire
Dynastic Cycle - rise and fall of the Chinese dynasties
Bureaucracy – organization of non-elected government officials
“Mandate of Heaven" - emperor had support of the heavens as long as he was a good ruler
Terra Cotta Army - underground "army" made of clay to protect the emperor in the afterlife
Qin Shi Huangdi - first emperor of China; ruthless
Uses legalism in laws and policies
Qin 221-206BCE
3) Confucianism - based on hierarchical, harmonious relationships to create orderly society; 5 relationships key, family at the center
2) Daoism - the world is too great to control so retreat from society and live in harmony with nature
1) Legalism - humans are naturally evil and only obey authority by force
3 Belief Systems form
Oracle bones tells us of the supreme importance on family relationships
Oracle Bones - pieces of shell or bone used to ask dead ancestors questions
Shang Dynasty 1600-1050 BCE
Let's look at some of the dynasties and some of the effective policies...
How did the ones that succeeded succeed?
Gunpowder - firelance, explosions
families could support themselves
Equal field system - program that gave lifetime fields to peasants
Tang 618-906CE
canal linked Yellow River with Yangzi
Sui 581-618CE
Only wealthy
exam set up to help the government identify best candidates for bureaucracy
Civil Service Exam -
Uses Confucianism in laws and policies
Han Dynasty 206-220CE
Tangs reached their furthest geographic extent under Empress Wu
turns to Buddhism; favors Buddhists
only woman to rule in her own name
Everyone could attain nirvana (reunion with universal spirit)
Buddhism influential during Tang dynasty


Founder: Siddhartha Gautama
Found enlightenment under bodhi tree
Buddha (Enlightened One)
nirvana - state of perfect happiness
four decks, six masts, and a dozen sails
Created greatest ships in the world
professional guilds
coal and iron
paper making
New Techniques
Economy thrives
Song 960-1279CE
Footbinding - tying women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; confined women
Paper money
First printing occurs
Tea and porcelain trade expands
Five Dynasties 907-960CE
3. opened lines of communication between Europe and Asia
2. used Chinese system of government
1. ideas, goods, diseases traveled faster than ever
Pax Mongolica
Mongol Rule
Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan’s grandson, established the Yuan Dynasty in China
After Genghis Khan’s death, Mongol territory is split into khanates
created largest land empire ever
Temujin = Genghis Khan
yurts - portable houses
pastoral nomads - communities of people who travel seasonally with livestock
Yuan 1279-1368CE
Dao = the way
passive force that does nothing but accomplishes everything
Yin-yang - concept that polar opposites are interconnected in the natural world
shadow and light, night and day, cold and hot, water and fire, etc.
not opposing forces but complementary
light cannot be understood without dark
Restores and expands Great Wall of China
Forbidden City (only his family, servants, and closest advisors)
Completed building of Great Canal
Four Noble Truths
1. Life has suffering
2. Suffering is caused by desires
3. End suffering by ending desires
4. Follow the Eightfold Path to achieve Nirvana
Empress Wu Zhao
punishments must be very harsh so people would not think of committing a crime
Ruler of each clan provided protection
Clans; made of mostly farmers
Ancestors settled near Osaka and Kyoto in 0-100s
Believed their destiny is separate from China
Isolated, only invaded by sea
Volcanic soil, fertile
Size of Montana
Chain of islands, main island is Honshu
3. Districts were created; villages central unit
2. Chinese government was nearly duplicated in Japan
1. sent representatives to China to study their government
Prince Shotoku Taishi
Competition for power remained
Eventually one leader of the Yamato clan gained control over all others
Shogun had all the real power; emperor just a puppet
Shogun - supreme military general of feudal Japan
After shogunate system collapsed, Japan fell into a state of constant warfare
If a samurai were to fail his master, he ended his life by
Samurai followed this code based on loyalty
Known as period of "Peace and Tranquility"
Samurai – “those who serve”
Other clans built up armies of samurai
Strong Army
Maintain Power?
Feudalism - Social system based on personal ownership of resources and personal loyalty between a lord and a vassal
Feudalism arises
Rule by military generals known as shoguns
Meditation and self-discipline are the keys
Everyone has a path to enlightenment within themselves, they must simply find it
Becomes part of the bushido
New form of Buddhism is Zen
Kami - spirits and natural forces in the Shinto faith
Shintoism - spiritual belief system that emphasizes nature, spirits, rituals
Island nation, very mountainous
4. Taxes went to government, not local leaders
seppuku - ritual suicide by disembowelment ("belly-slicing", hari-kiri)
Bushido – “way of the warrior”; code of ethics based on loyalty
Samurai come into existence to protect power of nobles
Lived by a strict code
Haiku - 5, 7, 5
Saying Goodbye
Waka Poetry - classical Japanese short poetry
And take me from here.
For someone to shelter me
It’s cold—and I wait
In the hot, hot heat
And find myself blistering
I walk across sand
As mine flow over with tears
Dark glasses cover their eyes
They all see my fear
Trying so hard to be brave
Carefully I walk
harvested in due season 7 syllables
watered by tears of passion 7 syllables
justly pruned by life 5 syllables
growing in a vast garden 7 syllables
Souls are merely seeds 5 syllables
I am playing with a crab.
I, my face is streaked with tears,
In the Eastern Sea
Of the beach of a small isle
On the most white sand
Waka structure - 5, 7, 5, 7, 7
A version of waka comes to be known as haiku in the 1800s
Art and Literature
Belief Systems
i. clearly display "PERSIA" categories
A. Civilization - the society, culture, and way of life of a particular area
PART I. Civilization
reunited China again
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