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Transcript of GMOs
The addition of new genetic material through genetic engineering could reactivate the inactive pathways that will increase the levels of toxic substances within the plants, which can be harmful to humans.
There could be changes in properties that could affect interaction between species and a healthy ecosystem.
The herbicide-resistant crops created through genetic engineering can be detrimental to the environment overall. The resistance of the herbicides causes the farmers to use a particular chemical pesticide, which could be harmful to the environment.
There could be a second site change in the organism's DNA after it has been altered.
There could be an increase of selective transcription and translation in the organism.
How are GMOs produced and what kinds of medical issues could arise from using GMOs?
In what ways do GMOs affect the environment?
What could go wrong during the process of genetically modifying an organism and what would the effects of this be?
Genetically Modified Organisms
Genetic engineering can cause unintended genetic changes within the organism.
Genetically modified organisms, also known as GMOs, are living organisms that contain DNA that has been specifically altered in a laboratory.
What are GMOs?
Some examples of GMOs include:
Other names for GMOs include:
Genetically Modified Organisms
Genetically Engineered Organisms
GMOs are produced by altering the genetic code of an organism or changing the DNA through transgenesis in order to produce an organism with the desired traits.
Transgenesis is the process of introducing a new, foreign gene from a species other than the organism itself into an organism to alter the DNA.
The genetic code is altered by resequencing and altering the bases of the DNA.
"They had stunted growth, bleeding stomachs, abnormal and potentially pre-cancerous cell growth in the intestines, impaired blood cell development, misshapen cell structures in the liver, pancreas and testicles, altered gene expression and cell metabolism, liver and kidney lesions, partially atrophied livers, inflamed kidneys, less developed brains and testicles, enlarged livers, pancreases and intestines, reduced digestive enzymes, higher blood sugar levels, increased death rates, higher offspring mortality and immune system dysfunction." (Smith 2007)
"Soon after GM soya was introduced into the UK, researchers at York Nutritional Laboratory, Yorkshire, reported that allergies to soya had skyrocketed by 50 per cent in a single year." (Smith 2007)
People may develop allergic reactions after consuming genetically modified food.
The GMO might compete with other desirable strains for necessities and other advantages.
It could interfere with desirable relationships among species.
example: destroying harmless or helpful insects along with harmful pests
example: competing with desired crops for food and water
Organisms could develop a resistance to the trait that was introduced.
There could be an unexpected or unfavorable change in the organism's ecology.
A second site change is when "the insertion of a desired gene also takes place at an undesirable place in the host genome." (Bhargava 2002)
This would also result in many unnecessary and potentially harmful mutations or modifications throughout the transgenic organism.
Transcription and translation are "processes that lead to the transmission of genetic information to proteins" (Bhargava 2002).
This could lead to dangerous and unwanted mutations in the organism.
Genetically engineering crops might introduce genes and proteins that have never been in the human food supply.
This could lead to harmful toxins being produced again through the reactivation of the gene in an organism that has been turned off.
Tomoko Nakanishi, a scientist from Japan, injected mice embryos with the DNA from a bioluminescent North American jellyfish in 1997.
This is an image of a normal melon on the left, after five days, and a transgenic melon on the right, after fifteen days. The transgenic melon is still fresh, even though it has been out longer than the normal melon, which is starting to rot.
These are genetically modified soybeans.
This is a diagram of how to make plants resistant to herbicides.