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Chapter 5: Morphology

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Kirstin Kay

on 4 February 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 5: Morphology

The Study of Word Formation Morphology: Morphemes Morphemes are the smallest unit in a language that may or may not stand alone. Lexical & Grammatical
Morphemes Lexical Morphemes have meaning when standing alone. Free & Bound
Morphemes Bound morphemes cannot stand alone as words. They may be lexical OR grammatical. Inflectional Affixes Derivational Affixes Differences Between
Types of Affixes Word Formation Processes Putting the
Pieces Together: Classroom Application English language has EIGHT inflectional affixes
{PLU} = PLURAL (ex.-boys)
{POSS} = POSSESSIVE (ex-boy's)
{COMP} = COMPARATIVE (ex-older)
{SUP} = SUPERLATIVE (ex-oldest)
{PRES} = PRESENT (ex-walks)
{PAST} = PAST (ex-walked)
{PAST PART} = PAST PARTICIPLE (ex-driven)
{PRES PART} = PRESENT PARTICIPLE (ex-driving) TB English language has an INFINITE number of derivational affixes
The suffix {ize} turns a NOUN into a VERB
ex- criticize, rubberize, mesmerize
The suffix {ful} turns a NOUN into an ADJECTIVE
ex- helpful, playful, thoughtful
The suffix {ly} turns an ADJECTIVE into an ADVERB
ex- quickly, carefully, swiftly
BUT...
The {ly} can also turn a NOUN into an ADJECTIVE
ex- friendly, manly, neighborly
Prefixes that help you to just say NO, or should we say NOT
{un} = unhappy, unassuming, unforgettable
{dis} = displeasure, dislike, distrust
{a} = asymmetrical, atheist, atypical
{anti} = anti-American, anti-aircraft Essential Questions 1) What are all the different types of morphemes and how are they used?

2) How do word parts and word formation processes affect meaning?

3) How can morphology be applied to the classroom? They are distinct from syllables. Identical spellings do not always assume identical meaning. We analyze morphemes in order to understand the rules people follow to form words in their spoken language. The notion that morphemes have a "more or less constant meaning" and "more or less constant form" is a GENERAL rule. HISTORY
Inflectional- native to English
Derivational- borrowed from other languages
DISTRIBUTION
Inflectional- all inflectional affixes are suffixes
Derivational- derivational affixes are either suffixes or prefixes
RANGE OF APPLICATION
Inflectional- wide range of application
Derivational- narrow range of application
ORDER OF APPEARANCE
Inflectional usually follows derivational
EFFECT ON SYNTACTIC CATEGORY
Inflectional- doesn't change the part of speech of the root
Derivational- can change the part of speech of the root
NUMBER OF ALLOWABLE AFFIXES
Inflectional- no more than ONE can be affixed
Derivational- NO LIMIT to the number that can be affixed TB There are EIGHT common word formation processes DERIVATION- the addition of a derivational suffix (ex.- orient (V) to orientation (N))
CATEGORY EXTENSION- the extension of a morpheme (ex.- chair (N) to chair (V))
COMPOUND- creating a new word by combining two morphemes (ex.- put-down)
ROOT CREATION- brand new word based on no preexisting morpheme (ex.- Kodak)
CLIPPED FORM- shortened form of a preexisting morpheme (ex.- bra < brassiere)
BLEND- combination of parts of two preexisting forms (ex.- smog < smoke + fog)
ACRONYM- word formed from the first letters of each word
(ex.- FEMA < Federal Emergency Management Agency)
ABBREVIATION- word formed from the names of the first letters of the prominent syllables (ex.- TV < television)
PROPER NAME- forms a word from a proper name (ex.- hamburger < Hamburg)
FOLK ETYMOLOGY- forms a word by substituting a common native form for an exotic form
(ex.- cockroach < Spanish cucuracha)
BACK FORMATION- word formed by removing what is mistaken for an affix (ex.- burgle < burglar Parker, F. & Riley, K. L. (2010). "Linguistics for non-linguists: A primer with exercises" (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. TB alligator = 4 syllables (al-li-gat-or), 1 morpheme (alligator)
cats = 1 syllable (cats), 2 morphemes (cat-s) er in buyer means "one who" & er in shorter means "to a greater degree than" boys & girls both have 2 morphemes and represent a plural,
whereas men represents plural by a vowel change (a to e) linguists must be aware of both the history and structure of words to develop a clear understanding of the words meaning Kirstin Kay i.e. nouns, verbs, & adjectives - boy, buy, & big Grammatical morphemes do not have meaning when standing alone. They express a relationship between lexical morphemes. i.e. prepositions, articles, & conjunctions - of, the, & but Free morphemes can stand alone as words. They may be lexical OR grammatical. Free Lexical Morphemes: serve & press
Free Grammatical Morphemes: at & and Bound Lexical Morphemes: 'clude' as in exclude, include, & preclude
Bound Grammatical Morphemes: 's' as in boys, girls, & cats Kirstin Kay Kirstin Kay Kirstin Kay http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1598/RT.61.2.3/pdf ARTICLE: Breaking Down Words to Build Meaning: Morphology, Vocabulary,and Reading Comprehension in the Urban Classroom By: Michael J. Kieffer, Nonie K. Lesaux ARTICLE (With Technology Component): Learning About Word Parts With Kidspiration By: Sharon Ruth Gill http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1598/RT.61.1.8/pdf (Resources to explore on your "spare" time!) YouTube Video: Prefixes & Suffixes Learning Rap CHAPTER: "Fun-tastic Activities for Differentiating Comprehension Instruction,
Grades 2–6" by Sandra K. Athans and Denise Ashe Devine:
Activities to Build Vocabulary and Word Skills http://www.johnsoncreek.k12.wi.us/faculty/mentings/Vocabulary%20Elementary%20Activit.pdf References (Parker & Riley, 2010) (Parker & Riley, 2010) (Parker & Riley, 2010) (Parker & Riley, 2010) (Parker & Riley, 2010) (Parker & Riley, 2010) (Parker & Riley, 2010) Kirstin Kay TB
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