Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Timeline of programming language

No description
by

Choe Zhang

on 27 November 2012

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Timeline of programming language

1.2 John Von Neuman
Much later, around 1945, John von Neuman formalized these ideas into two concepts. One,
the ”shared-program technique”, stating that a computer should not need changes done to
its hardware to run a dierent programme, but rather be freely programmable. The other,
”conditional control transfer”, formalising the idea that code can be put in small blocks which
do not have to be computed sequentially but can be accessed according to conditions in the
code.
So now, after the ENIAC, which could only run one specic programme and needed massive
hardware reconguration to run another, several computers, such as the ORDVAC, EDVAC,
were being built based more or less on von Neumans ideas. These machines were programmed
by feeding them zeros and ones on punching cards. 1.3 The rst programming language and the rst compiler
The rst programming language that was not machine code, was Short Code in 1949. It
provided basic arithmetic and allowed for branching and calls to a library of functions, but
had to be compiled into bits by hand and was about 50 times slower than machine code.
In 1951 Grace Hopper programmes the rst compiler A-0, paving the way for the higher
level programming languages used today. 1 How computers and programming got started 1.1 Babbage’s Analytical Machine
Preceded by the chinese abacus and some other calculating devices, such as the Pascaline
built by Blaise Pascal and the Difference Engine by himself, Charles Babbage proposed in
1837 a fully programmable machine he called the Analytical Machine. He worked on it until
his death in 1871, but never managed to build one.
The Analytical Machine was astonishingly similar to modern-day computers, in that it
stored it’s program data and input data seperatly, had a central processing unit and a printer
output data. Theoretically, if built, it would have been Touring-complete.
Ada Augusta King, Countess of Lovelace, then wrote programmes for the machine, including
one to compute Bernoulli-Numbers. In these programmes she used programming concepts
now ubiquitous in modern programming, such as subroutines, as a reusable set of instructions,
loops and conditional jumps.
-The main difference between the two engines is that the Analytical Engine could be programmed using punched cards
-was very similar to modern-day computers, in that it
stored it’s program data and input data separately, had a central processing unit and a printer
output data. 2.1 FORTRAN - 1957
The first big language was Fortran (FORmula TRANslation) which was mainly intended
and used for scientific computing, the military projects and later the Space Program being
prominent examples. It was the first language to introduce data types, such as boolean,
integer, real and double-precision numbers. It spawned a whole lot of dialects which adapted
the language and kept it up to date in the course of the years and is widely used up until
today. 2.3 ALGOL - 1958
Implemented in a formal grammar, the Backus-Naur-Form, Algol is the ancestor of pretty
much every programming language in use today, in that it is the first block-structured language.
Originally intended for scientific computing it soon got replaced by the languages it
spawned. 2.4 Lisp - 1958
Lisp is short for List Processing and is quite different from the other languages of that time,
or any time even, in that it relies heavily on linked lists as the main data structure. Even the
source code itself is made up of lists, thus making the language easy to manipulate.
Lisp is closely linked to AI research. 2 Significance and characteristics of higher-level programming 3.1 Software crisis
As hardware power was growing exponetially, following Moore’s Law, software programmers
struggled to keep up. More and more lines of code were being written for increasingly complex
projects. This led to the software crisis of the 1960’s and early 1970’s when more and more
software projects began to run over-budget and over-time, as well as being of poor quality.
In 1968 Friedrich Bauer adresses the problem at a NATO Conference in 1968 in Garmisch
and calls for software engineering, much similar to project managemant in classical engineering
fields. The most interesting proposal from a programming language point of view being
modularization of code for easier maintenance, since only parts of the software have to be
rewritten, if the need arises. Also modularization encourages and supports collaboration
between programmers on software projects.
These concepts have found their way into todays languages, which pretty much all support
modularization in some form or other. 3 Software crisis and beyond Java 4.1 C
C used a lot of concepts known from - but is not a successor of - Pascal, although a lot harder
to read and more effective in terms of computing speed. It was mainly associated,but not
limited to, the UNIX operating system creating a synergy effect in acceptance, helping both
projects greatly. Since its inception it has been it has had a range of successors such as C
with Classes in 1980 and later, based on that, C++ which implemented the ideas of OOP
and made it compatible for today. Domainspecific languages 4.2 Java
Designed by Sun Microsystems in 1990 and intended to be very portable, by not allowing
dialects and being compiled into bytecode which then runs on a Java Virtual Machine. Java
supports a whole load of modern programming concepts but omits others, such as pointers,
in favor of security Java has got a range of shortcomings, such as its low speed and its C-like
code which is not very readable. 4.3 Domainspecific languages
In the course of ongoing specializations in the buisiness and computing world programming
languages have reflected this trend by Nowadays, almost as often as a general-purpose languague,
a domainspecific language will be used to solve a little problem. Often these languages
will be used side by side in a software project. Such languages include database-query languages,
like sql, graphical and printing languages, such as Postscript, scripting languages such
as PHP and many more. Higher level programming lets the programmer concentrate on solving a problem without
having to worry to much about a computers hardware. A drawback though is the slower
computing time, as the code will first be translated into machine code and then be run. COBOL- 1959
-It only recognised numbers and strings of text, which
were grouped together into arrays providing for good data handling 2.2 COBOL - 1959
Whilst Fortran was great for number crunching it did lack a proper I/O, and in 1959 the
Conference on Data Systems and Languages (CODASYL) got together and agreed on Cobol
as a language for the buisiness market. It only recognised numbers and strings of text, which were grouped together into arrays providing for good data handling.
Although widely criticized for being just a short term solution to problems perceived in the
1950’s and significantly better languages existing on the market today, the language is still in widespread use, due to legacy systems having been dragged along from the very beginning. Timeline of Programming Language When Charles Babbage was 41 years old he proposed in a fully programmable machine he called the Analytical Machine. He worked on it until his death in 1871, but never managed to build one. C. Babbage Analytical Machine 1837 Analytical Machine - Ada Augusta King translated an article by Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea on the engine, which she supplemented with a set of notes of her own. These notes contain what is considered the first computer program 1842 - 1843 ada augusta king John von Neuman formalized these ideas into two concepts. One,
“Shared-program technique”, stating that a computer should not need changes done to its hardware to run a different programme, but rather be freely programmable. The other,
”conditional control transfer”, formalising the idea that code can be put in small blocks which do not have to be computed sequentially but can be accessed according to conditions in the code. 1945 John von Neuman -It was the first language to introduce data types, such as Boolean, integer, real and double-precision numbers. FORTRAN - 1957 COBOL- 1959 - It is the first block-structured language.
-Originally intended for scientific computing it soon got replaced by the languages it spawned ALGOL – 1958 Lisp – 1958 -short for List Processing
-is quite different from the other languages in that it relies heavily on linked lists as the main data structure Personal computers turned up around 1980 bringing new interests and needs
Including:
1.New job opportunities
2.Automated billing
3.World wide access to data 3.1 Software crisis
As hardware power was growing exponetially, following Moore’s Law, software programmers
struggled to keep up. More and more lines of code were being written for increasingly complex
projects. This led to the software crisis of the 1960’s and early 1970’s when more and more
software projects began to run over-budget and over-time, as well as being of poor quality.
In 1968 Friedrich Bauer adresses the problem at a NATO Conference in 1968 in Garmisch
and calls for software engineering, much similar to project managemant in classical engineering
fields. The most interesting proposal from a programming language point of view being
modularization of code for easier maintenance, since only parts of the software have to be
rewritten, if the need arises. Also modularization encourages and supports collaboration
between programmers on software projects.
These concepts have found their way into todays languages, which pretty much all support
modularization in some form or other. Software crisis and beyond -Dates back to the 1960’s but only got popular in the early
1990’s
-intended to ensure a programmes quality Object Orientation 3.1 Software crisis
As hardware power was growing exponetially, following Moore’s Law, software programmers
struggled to keep up. More and more lines of code were being written for increasingly complex
projects. This led to the software crisis of the 1960’s and early 1970’s when more and more
software projects began to run over-budget and over-time, as well as being of poor quality.
In 1968 Friedrich Bauer adresses the problem at a NATO Conference in 1968 in Garmisch
and calls for software engineering, much similar to project managemant in classical engineering
fields. The most interesting proposal from a programming language point of view being
modularization of code for easier maintenance, since only parts of the software have to be
rewritten, if the need arises. Also modularization encourages and supports collaboration
between programmers on software projects.
These concepts have found their way into todays languages, which pretty much all support
modularization in some form or other. 3.1 Software crisis
As hardware power was growing exponetially, following Moore’s Law, software programmers
struggled to keep up. More and more lines of code were being written for increasingly complex
projects. This led to the software crisis of the 1960’s and early 1970’s when more and more
software projects began to run over-budget and over-time, as well as being of poor quality.
In 1968 Friedrich Bauer adresses the problem at a NATO Conference in 1968 in Garmisch
and calls for software engineering, much similar to project managemant in classical engineering
fields. The most interesting proposal from a programming language point of view being
modularization of code for easier maintenance, since only parts of the software have to be
rewritten, if the need arises. Also modularization encourages and supports collaboration
between programmers on software projects.
These concepts have found their way into todays languages, which pretty much all support
modularization in some form or other. -came into use in the late 1970’s,
-allowing loads of people, who would else would have never seen a computer, to programme on their own.
-led to the rise of languages otherwise not notable such as Pascal, which was intended as a educational tool, with very strict syntax but gathered widespread adoption outside expectations Home Computers C 4 Languages Today By 11B Becky.Z & Choe.Z Oct - Nov -thousands of programming languages are being used
The world
-is an ever changing place with new problems, ideas and hardware environments sprouting up every other second Languages Today Evolution Evolution -developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at Bell Labs.
-C is the ,most widely used programming language.
- Many later languages have borrowed directly or indirectly from C. -Designed by Sun Microsystems in 1990.
- The language derives much of its syntax from C and C++, but it has fewer low-level facilities than either of them.
- Java is as of 2012 one of the most popular programming languages in use, particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 10 million users. Thank you so much!! - It is a statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language.
- Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs.
- C++ is one of the most popular programming languages and is implemented on a wide variety of hardware and operating system platforms. -It is a programming language or specification language dedicated to a particular problem domain, a particular problem representation technique, and/or a particular solution technique. C++
Full transcript