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Transcript of Accountable Talk
Principles of Learning & How Accountable Talk Fits In
Talking to others is fundamental to learning
not all talk sustains learning
Accountable Talk discourse is talk that sustains learning
Teachers in accountable talk classrooms intentionally establish and promote the norms and skills of accountable talk practices
There are 3 foundations of accountable talk practices: Accountability to Knowledge, Reasoning and the Learning Community
What is Intelligence?
Intelligence is more than the ability to think quickly and stockpile bits of knowledge
Intelligence is a set of problem solving and reasoning capabilities
By calling on students to use the skills of intelligent thinking - educators can "teach" intelligence
Discourse is one of the primary ways in which people socialize and "learn" intelligence
Thinking & Problem Solving in the 21st Century
Thinking & Problem Solving are the new "basics" of 21st Century Learning
The idea that we can teach thinking without a solid foundation of knowledge must be abandoned
Similarly, the notion that we can teach knowledge without engaging students in thinking must also be abandoned
Knowledge & Thinking are intimately joined
This implies a curriculum organized around major concepts or "BIG Ideas" that students are expected to know deeply
Teaching must engage students in active reasoning about these concepts in every subject, at every grade level
Fixed vs. Growth Mindset
How people Learn
Students come into the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding isn't engaged they may fail to grasp new concepts and new information that they are taught
To develop competency in an area of inquiry, students must: (a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge (b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework (c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application
A metacognitive approach to instruction can ehlp students learn to take control of their learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them
If we expect all students to achieve at high levels, then we need to define explicitly what we expect students to learn
These expectations need to be clearly communicated so as to be understood by school professionals, parents and of course, the students themselves
Descriptive criteria and models of work that meet standards should be displayed and students should refer to these exemplars to analyze and discuss their work
Accountability to Knowledge
students return to the text
students provide evidence from the text to support their thinking
students draw on knowledge and established facts already built on by the classroom community
students ask questions: "What's your evidence for that?" "Where do you see that in the text?"
students challenge eachother "I disagree with you because here it says xyz...."
Accountability to Reasoning (Rigorous Thinking)
students take time to explain their reasoning, why they think something, what their evidence is for their position
students check and/or question one another's assumptions and evidence
teachers ask questions "What makes you think that?" "What's the basis for the interpretation?" "What's your reasoning?" "How do you know?"
Accountability to the Learning Community
students are seated so that they can see and hear one another
students build on one another's ideas (I agree with...., I disagree with...., Why do you think that? I would like to add on to what _____ said....)
teachers use a variety of
"Can everyone hear what _____ just said?" "Can anyone repeat what _____ said?" "Do you agree/disagree with that statement?" "Can anyone add on to what _____ just said?"
The Role of Norms in Accountable Talk
Getting Smarter Through Interaction
What Does Accountable Talk Look Like?
Orchestrating Talk Needs:
The Plan: the what and how students will learn; the task or lesson that is part of a designed curricululm
A Driving Scientific Question: scientists explore scientific questions; it gives purpose and focus to the talk
Careful Listening and Responding: To move away from 'talking at' to a conversation that engages all; teachers must slow down and listen carefully so they can guide predictable and unpredictable responses
Most Important Talk Moves
ex.: "So let me see if I've got your thinking right. You're saying XYZ...." with time given for student to accept or reject the answer
2. Asking students to restate someone else's reasoning:
ex.: "Can you repeat what he/she said in your own words?"
3. Asking students to apply their own reasoing to someone else's reasoning
ex.: Do you agree or disagree and why?
Most Important Talk Moves
4. Prompting students for further information
ex.: "Would someone like to add on?"
"What else?" "What do you notice is missing?" "Say more."
5. Asking students to explicate their reasons
ex.: "Why do you think that?" "What evidence from the text supports your claim?" "How does it support it?"
6. Challenge or counter example
"Is this always true?" "How does your interpretation contrast with ______?"
Orchestrating Talk Needs:
1. A Plan: The what and how; the task or lesson that is part of the curriculum
2. An Open-ended Question: Without a single answer the question allows for multiple points of entry and varied responses
3. Improvising: Guiding predictable and unpredictable responses
Students discuss a BIG idea and use different kinds of talk (defining, elaborating, questioning, disagreeing) citing evidence from the text and their own ideas
I.R.E. Non-Example of Accountable Talk
Preconceptions about Intelligence
What are your preconceptions about intelligence?
Are we born smart?
Can you get smarter?
How much does effort count?
History of I.Q. Tests
How do we define intelligence?
Turn of the Century, time period that the theory of mental retardation was developing
Binet, known to be one of the best psychologists of the time, worked for Paris School Authority, that's how the I.Q. Test came about
Not all kids were performing well in curriculum, but there was no way to measure performance
Binet was asked to build a test based on theory that would predict who would and wouldn't do well in school so that they could move them (we now recognize this to be the beginning of special education programming)
History of I.Q. Tests Continued.....
Binet, et. al. took all off the definitions of intelligence to see if they could use them to predict who would do well in school
None of them did
He told the Paris School Authority he couldn't do it
They told him to do it anyway, that they knew they had a lot of kids failing and wanted to figure out who these kids would be in advance
Binet threw away all the research on theories of intelligence and stated: "Being intelligent is being quick at learning."
Being quick at learning means that in any given amount of time you'll learn more than someone else who is slow or not as smart
So we could just take a whole bunch of questions about the world and see how many 6-year- olds can answer correctly
Some will be able to answer a lot of questions, some only a few
Those that can answer a lot of questions we would agree are smarter, right?
This led to the creation of the I.Q. test
To be called a 6-year-old test question, 70% of 6-year-olds have to be able to answer it correctly
So if a child starts to fail on 7-year-old items, but got at least 70% of the 6-year-old items correct you would say the child has a mental age of 6
100 is the average I.Q. that is where your mental age and chronological age are identical
Virtually every I.Q. test we use today are created using the Binet model
Sometimes we call them grade levels instead of mental age levels