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Pump Selection

A brief introduction in pumps

Adrian Moldovanu

on 28 November 2011

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Transcript of Pump Selection

THE Pump A pump is a device used to move fluids such as liquids, gases or slurries. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical actions. Positive Displacement Pumps The PD pump operate by alternating of filing a cavity and the displacing a given volume of liquid The centrifugal pump produces a head (pressure) and a flow by increasing the velocity of the liquid through the machine with the help of a rotating vane impeller Centrifugal Pumps Rotary pumps Reciprocating pumps Single rotor Multiple rotor Vane pumps Pumping action is caused by the expanding and contracting volumes contained by the rotor, vanes, and housing Screw pumps Screw pumps, also called Archimedes’ screw, consists of a screw inside a hollow pipe. As the bottom end of the tube turns, it scoops up a volume of water. This amount of water will slide up in the spiral tube as the shaft is turned, until it finally pours out from the top of the tube. Its rotor is a bar with a roller at either end while its pumping chamber, or stator, is a continuous length of flexible tubing or hose set in a U-shaped housing. The rolling motion of the rotor “pinches” the inner walls of the tubing together and forces liquid through the pump. Peristaltic pumps Axial piston pumps are positive displacement pump that has a number of pistons in a circular array with a cylinder block. Axial pumps Those pumps are similar to the axial ones but the pistosns are arranged radial. Radial pumps Gear pumps The two gears come into and out of mesh to produce the flow. Lobe pumps are similar to external gear pumps except the pumping elements (or lobes) do not make contact. Lobe contact is prevented by external timing gears. Lobe pumps Screw pumps The main difference between this and the single rotor screw pump is the number of axes. Diaphragm Piston, plunger Simplex or duplex Diaphragm pumps are reciprocating positive displacement pumps that employ a flexible membrane to displace the pumped fluid. They are truly self priming (can prime dry) and can run dry without damage. Nearly continuous flow maybe obtained using a double diaphragm pump. Reciprocating-type pumps require a system of suction and discharge valves to ensure that the fluid moves in a positive direction. Pumps in this category range from having “simplex” one cylinder; to in some cases “quad” four cylinders or more. Single, double acting Single, multiple piston In axial flow centrifugal pumps the rotor is a propeller. Fluid flows parallel to the axis. Diffusion vanes are located in the discharge port of the pump to eliminate the rotational velocity of the fluid imparted by the propeller Axial flow Radial flow In radial flow pumps the fluid enters along the axial plane, is accelerated by the impeller and exits at right angles to the shaft.
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