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Chapter 6: Listening, Feedback and Critical Thinking
Transcript of Chapter 6: Listening, Feedback and Critical Thinking
Listening, Feedback, and Critical Thinking
Hearing & Listening
Listening is different from hearing.
- the involuntary, physiological process by which we perceive sound
- the deliberate, psychological process by which we receive, understand, and retain aural stimuli.
a College Student
We want to simplify messages - so we delete or alter the information in the message to simplify it
55.4% of day spent listening
17.1% of day spent reading
16.1% of day speaking
11.4% of day writing
Signs you are not listening:
You are waiting for a person to stop talking so you can express your opinion or a story related to what they are saying.
You tend to interrupt people
You finish people's sentences or jump ahead of them to make them finish faster.
You find yourself internally criticizing mannerisms or the appearance of the person.
Types of Listening
- listening for enjoyment or relaxation
Researcher Ralph Nichols: we only listen at 25% efficiency.
Communication theorist William Haney: we run into problems with
, which is a chain-of-command transmission.
1. message as it exists in the mind of the speaker
2. message as it is spoken (encoded by the speaker)
3. message as it is interpreted (decoded) by the listener
4. message as it is remembered by the listener (affected by the listener's personal selectivity and rejection.)
When passing along a message, we might add, subtract or alter it before we pass it along. Therefore, the message we pass along might be wrong.
Ways to show you are listening
"the gaze window"
- Listening to gain knowledge.
- listening to evaluate the worth of a message.
- listening to help others.
- Relies on 2 communication skills. The ability to read the non-verbal cues, and paraphrasing.
- restating in your own words what another person has said.
Suggests that listening is composed of both mental processes and observable behaviors.
The 6 skill areas, or listening stages:
The Hearing Stage
- we choose to attend to some of the sounds we hear, and not others.
The Understanding Stage
- We relate what we listen to to what we already know.
can prevent us from understanding.
The Remembering Stage
- We try to retain what we have heard. We retain only about 50% of a message after listening to it, and 25% after a period of time has passed. Strong emotions make us remember more.
3 Tools for Recall:
The Interpreting Stage
- If we use dual perspective taking, we consider the message from the sender's perspective and our own.
The Evaluating Stage
- Weigh the worth of the message, also called critical thinking.
The Responding Stage
- We react to the message and offer feedback.
- nodding without really paying attention.
- egotistical, only interesting in talking, not listening to others.
- People who fill in gaps of information they have missed or misinterpreted with manufactured information.
- People who wait for you to make a mistake, in an effort to challenge and outdo you.
- Only listen to the things that are important or relevant to them.
- Don't pay attention to information they don't want to deal with, or pretend to not understand.
- Interpret everything as a personal attack on themselves.
We always give feedback, whether we mean to or not.
Evaluative Feedback - stating an opinion, value analysis. Might be positive or negative.
Nonevaluative Feedback - not judgemental, doesn't attempt to influence actions.
- nonevaluative, ask for additional information (interested).
- nonevaluative, often paraphrase.
- nonevaluative, validates, deems it important and significant. (Empathetic)
- nonevaluative, state our own feelings, don't pass judgement.
Characteristics Essential for Critical Thinking:
1) Know what you do/ do not know
2) Are open-minded and take time to reflect on ideas
3) Pay attention to people who agree/disagree with you
4) Look for good reasons to accept or reject expert opinion
5) Are concerned with unstated assumptions and what is not said in addition to what has been said.
6) Insist on getting the best evidence
7) Able to reflect on how well conclusions fit premises and vice versa.
We listen to people at a rate of 125-250 words per minute, but think at 1,000-3,000 words per minute.
Get into pairs and discuss the following:
1. What is your name?
2. What is your major?
3. Why do you want to go into that field?
4. What types of things do you want to do while you are at Messiah (either academic or social)?
Second try - In your pairs discuss:
1. What is your family like?
2. What do you like to do in your free time?
3. What is your favorite memory from a vacation?
Things to try:
- Affirmation during the gaze window
- Listening to understand. Don't interrupt or relate it back to yourself
- Paraphrase, give non-evaluative feedback