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First Nations and Canada:

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by

Matt Yu

on 6 March 2014

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Transcript of First Nations and Canada:

Climax of conflict
The height of the conflict happened late 19th century and early 20th. The main problem was that the Canadians started to assimilate the Indians into their own "Canadian Culture".
First Nations and Canada:
A Stateless Nation's Conflict

Roots of Conflict
assimilation of First Nations into european culture, which led to the rapid dismemberment of traditional Aboriginal culture
gradual taking of First Nation land by treatise, due to the changing conditions of society
Oka incident- where the town intruded upon sacred grounds to build a golf course, which led to a standoff for 78 days against the Quebec Provincial Police and the Canadian Armed Forces.
Residential school systems- made up of many cases of Aboriginal mistreatment and abuse
Brief Description of the 2 groups.
Canadians - Europeans who moved here during colonialism and have settled here alongside the aboriginals. They consider Canada their true homeland.


First Nations - groups of aboriginals who were native to the land and have faced many problems with living with the Canadians. Not unlike the Canadians they also consider Canada as their home land.
Present State of Affairs
Currently, the Canadian government is at peace with the First Nation party mainly due to education reforms for the aboriginals. But despite this and other friendly treaties made between Canada and the First Nations a significant number of First Nation members are lobbying to secede. This is likely due to the long standing hate between the 2 groups.
Solutions to the Conflict
A simple yet effective way of getting to a solution between these two groups is to allow the First Nation’s people a say in matters that in any way affects them. With this the First Nation’s people can add in anything they need to be legal or changed so that the 2 groups will not have to separate lands and will be able to live in harmony.

A Brief history of both parties:
The French: They arrived starting in the 1500's, colonizing the nearby area. They were on mainly good terms with the First Nation indians, until the British defeated the French in the French and Indian war. Then led a history of many, many treaties that eventually took most of the previous aboriginal lands from the First Nations.

First Nation Indians: The natives to Canada, they lived off the land for hundreds of years before the Europeans came. They then existed peacefully for a time, often trading furs and pelts, until the British began imposing upon them their culture and ways of modern society. This soon would become of the roots that caused the distrust between the 2 groups.

By Matthew Yu and Arjun Swamy
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1500's
In the 1500s Europeans made contact with Eastern Seaboard First Nation Indians and established informal trading systems.
1701
In 1701, France and 40 First Nations signed a treaty in Montreal known as the Great Peace.
1756-1763
The 7 Year's War occurred during this period. The French and British made military alliances with the First Nations during this period.
1763
During this time, the Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued. All lands west of firmly established western boundary was Indian Territory.
A Brief Timeline:
1820's-onward
Beginning of the initiative to assimilate First Nations into European culture; starting at Coldwaters-Narrows, which was a dismal failure.
Start of one of roots of conflict
First Nation people participate in Worlds Wars and Korean War, leaders emerge demanding for equality and cultural acceptance.
1914-1953
1981
F.N. organizations start lobbying for their Aboriginal rights
1985
Canada passes Bill C-31, removing discriminatory provisions, eliminating the links between marriage and status, giving individual bands greater control in determining their own membership, and defining two new categories of Indian status.
1990
Oka Incident- town of Oka tried expanding a gold course onto sacred Mohawk lands, which led to a F.N. members facing off against the Quebec Provincial Police and the Canadian Armed Forces.
Start of another root of conflict
1996
Creation of National Aboriginal Day
Current Time
2008
Canada gives a formal apology on June 11, 2008 too all former students of residential schools for the impact the schools had on Aboriginal cultures, heritage, and languages.
2007
Canadian government gives nearly 2 billion dollars in recompense for residential school survivors, of which the school systems were infamous of many cases of Aboriginal abuse and mistreatment. Recompense was called the Common Experience Package; also created the Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconcilation Commision.


Works Cited:
"Assembly of First Nations." - News & Media. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.

Bland, Douglas L. "CANADA AND THE FIRST NATIONS Cooperation or Conflict?" MacDonald-Laurier Institute, n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2014.

"Canada First Nations." Canada First Nations. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.

"Specific Claims: Justice At Last." Government of Canada; Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada; Communications Branch;. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.

Tait, Patricia L. "Systems of Conflict Resolution Within First Nations Communities:
Honouring The Elders, Honouring The Knowledge." NCFNG, CNGPN, n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2014.

"Timeline: Key Moments in the Struggle over First Nations Schooling Policy." CTVNews. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.

"Understanding the Relationship between First Nations and Canada." NetNewsledger.com -. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2014.
An alternate solution that would mutually benefit both parties would be to give participating First Nation groups land for personal and cultural use, and use some of it to establish historical sites. Then Canada can profit from the tourism generated by the historical sites and preserve the cultural heritage of the land. The First Nation peoples also get to practice their traditional culture, if they so wish to.
Reflective Essay
Matthew Yu
Kurds and Iraqi- The Kurds are similar to the First Nation Indians in regards to the rising tensions between the host state. They both have significant cultural and material benefits, for example, First Nation trade in pelts and skins and the Kurd’s many oil fields waiting to be exploited. They are different though in the fact that the Iraqi state has committed mass genocide upon the Kurd population. Canada and the First Nation groups have had peaceful relations up through most of their shared history. The information learned from the Kurdian stateless nation has increased my knowledge of genocidal acts, solutions to a peaceful agreement, and as well the political and social relations and interests of both parties. This stateless nation has also increased my knowledge of current issues in Southwest and West Asia.

Quebec and Canada- The situation of Quebec/Canada is similar to the First Nations/Canada in the regard that Canada is suppressing both stateless nations’ culture. They are different in the regard that Quebec encompasses a much larger population than of First Nation groups, thus bringing with it much more economic and political value. The situation of Quebec/Canada has increased my understanding of cultural issues, and how culture is especially important to a nation. The presentation also widened my awareness of succession groups in the province.

Naga and India- The situation of Naga/India is similar to the First Nations and Canada in regards to the political peace and stability between both stateless nation and country. They are different, however, in the regard that the Naga people have previously attacked government officials and buildings. The information learned from Naga/India has increased my knowledge of terrorism, want for independence, and political concerns of both parties. I have also recognized about a political situation I was unaware about within India.
Reflective Essay 2- Arjun Swamy
1. How are the situations of the groups similar/different to the conflict in your area and culture group?
Kurds - The conflict between the Iraqi and the Kurds is similar to the First Nation's conflict in that both groups have had a loss of culture due to their conflict sometime in the past. In the Kurds case the mass genocide caused the deaths of many Kurds who would have passed down the culture. The First Nation's people underwent forced assimilation by the Canadian government which also came to the same result of a loss of culture. Though the 2 groups had this similarity their difference is the violence level. The First Nation conflict was peaceful for the most part while the Kurds had to go through 2 wars against the Iraqi and a genocide. It is clear that the Kurds underwent more hardships than the First Nation's.
Quebec - The problem with Quebec and Canada is extremely similar to the First Nations and Canada conflict. For instance Canada is present in both conflicts and also in both cases Canada has been blamed for forcing both people to change their own unique culture and adopt the Canadian Culture. The people of Quebec were told to forget their French roots and go along with the Canadian Culture and the First Nation's people's children were forced into public schools to "kill the Indian in them". Looking at them side by sie it is very hard to find any difference but a key distinguishing factor is how advanced Quebec is. Quebec's chances of surviving while being autonomous is much higher than the First Nation's.
Naga - The problem with the Naga was that their way of life was being suppressed by the Indian government. This is similar to the First Nation problem because in both cases the government is forcefully pushing down the culture of the groups involved in the conflict. However similar the key difference here is that the Naga are trying to separate from India while the First Nation's are looking for autonomy while not seceding.
2. How has the information you learned increased your understanding of cultural and political themes of geography?
The information I gained from learning about the 4 conflicts including my own showed by the different paths nations may take to achieve their personal goals. In the First Nation's example the people fought in wars such as WWII alongside Canada which helped Canada recognize them and they gained friendship through it. Also so that they could have their separate state the Kurds were willing to fight 2 wars. Regarding cultures I learned that cultures can be greatly affected by these efforts and in some cases conflict can cause a loss of culture.
3.How has the information you learned increased your understanding of current global issues?
The information I learned from the 4 conflicts has increased my understanding of current global issues by showing me how certain events can trigger certain actions by different countries or groups. All of the conflicts have had a root cause which triggered the country's or the group's reaction to the event. For example the Naga people have been opposing the Indians ever since they starting suppressing their way of life.
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