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CGC1D0-C Summative

Taheera Sarker

on 4 May 2013

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Transcript of Overfishing

OVERFISHING Why It Happens The Effects How To Prevent It 200 million people in the world depend on the fishing industry for employment Collapse of Newfoundland's Cod Fishery Economic Overfishing Economy Environment Overfishing Effects Society Common Types of Fishing - target
- recruitment
- economic
- use of cyanide
- blast fishing
- commercial fishing
- bottom trawling
-ghost fishing
-malthusian Higher catches result in higher demands
Eventually demands won't be met
Will result in a crisis because we depend on fish for protein Worldwide Commercially Exploited Species Fully Exploited Moderately Exploited Over Exploited Recovering Depleted What It Is 7% 20% 52% 17% 1% By 2050, all commercially exploited fish will collapse By Taheera Sarker - loss of $225-$240 billion each year between 1950-2004, Earth has lost 10 million tonnes of fish Destructive methods and overfishing caused a collapse in 1992
40,000 people lost their jobs
Those who lost their jobs had to leave to look for other employment
communities are still trying to recover Marginal costs of a unit of fish is higher than marginal revenues The biggest threat to the ocean enironment Can destroy a whole marine ecosystem - animals that prey on overfished species don't get necessary food, and eventually become endangered
- targeted species will eventually become extinct (swordfish, tuna, etc.)
-decreases fish population
- in certain species, female fish reproduce when they are old, but they are fished before they can reproduce Target: Commercial: Bottom Trawling: Blast Fishing Cyanide catches fish on the ocean floor
uses a large heavy net to drag across the ocean floor
90% of the results of bottom trawling is bycatch target is overshot
targeted species such as swordfish and tuna will become extinct if overfishing continues affects coastal ecosystems by removing species that are vital to the survival of other species Ecosystem: Ghost Fishing fish are removed at a high rate
changes the structure of the ecosystem dynamite is dropped in, and dead or stunned fish float to the surface
is illegal, yet is still being used in over 30 countries
destroys coral reefs
ecosystem starts to collapse because of lost fish and coral when fishing gear is lost, and continues to harm the marine life (i.e. bottom trawlers and other destructive equipment) poisoning fish so they are stunned, therefore easier to catch
illegally used to catch fish
harms all marine life in the area More Affects of Those Types of Fishing use of trawls and dredges changes the structure of the ocean floor
effects of cyanide and dynamite use are irreversible What Is Overfishing? Why It Happens Benchley, Peter. Ocean Planet. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, Times Mirror Magazines,
Inc., 1995. Print.
Desonie, Dana. Oceans: How We Use the Seas. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 2008.
“Overfishing.” Fish Spawning Aggregations: A Reef Resilience Toolkit Module. John D. and
Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2007. Web. 06 Dec. 2011.
Lazarrof, Cat. “Destructive Fishing Causing Ocean Crisis.” Common Dreams. Environmental
News Service, 2003. Web. 08 Dec. 2011.
“Protecting Marine Ecosystems.” Marine Conservation Biology Institute. Marine Conservation
Institute, N.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2011.
“Impacts of IUU Fishing.” Environmental Justice Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2011.
“Overfishing dramatically depleting ocean stocks.” CBC News Canada. The Canadian Press,
2011. Web. 08 Dec. 2011.
“Impacts of fishery activities.” Food and Agriciulture Organization of the United Nations.
Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Fisheries Global Information System, n.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2011.
“Canada’s Actions Against Overfishing.” Fisheries and Oceans Canada. N.p, 2010. Web. 08
Dec. 2011.
“No plaice like home.” Economist, Vol.335 Issue 7911. Canadian Points of View Reference
Centre. Web. 06 Dec. 2011.
< http://web.ebscohost.com/pov/detail?vid=5&hid=106&sid=19dd7398-47cd-48a5-ac2a-73437fb89fa7%40sessionmgr111&bdata=Jmxhbmc9ZW4tY2Emc2l0ZT1wb3YtY2Fu#db=p3h&AN=9504257660>
Grout, Doug. “New Fishing Limits Proposed to Promote Higher Abundance of Menhaden on
Eastern Seaboard.” New Hampshire Fish and Game. N.p, 2010. Web. 07 Dec. 2011.
Halpern, Ben. “Marine Reserves.” The Encyclopedia of Earth. Environmental Information
Coaliation, 2008. Web. 07 Dec. 2011.
< http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_reserves>
Parsons, Sarah. “Overfishing Hurts Economy, Public Health, and Ocean Ecosystems.”
Change.org. Change.org Inc., 2010. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.
“Overfishing – Causes, impacts and solutions.” MyFundi. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.
“Salmon treaty aims to prevent overfishing on West Coast.” Komonews.com, 23, May, 2008.
Web. 11 Dec. 2011.
< http://www.komonews.com/news/local/19210734.html>
Linet, Dylan. “Rapidly Dying Oceans — Can We Stop Overfishing?” Eco Localizer. The Inspired
Economist, 2011. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.
“Overfishing.” Greenpeace. N.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.
< http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/oceans/> BIBLIOGRAPHY Even though it is a serious threat to the ecosystems now, most fisheries still do not do enough to preserve fish Nations are not doing enough to stop overfishing People always had the belief that fish supplies would never run out, so there was no concern for fish going extinct
Global overfishing harvests 70% of the world's species faster than they can replenish themselves Estimated annual loss of 54 billion worldwide These nations allow pirate fishing, also known as IUU fishing (Illegal, Unreported, Unregulated) to happen in their waters, under their name Nations lack the will to regulate laws for these foreign vessels When nations allow pirate fishing to occur in their waters and operate under that country's name, it is describes as 'selling their flag' Secondary companies of those countries allow pirate ships to overfish commercially rare and valuable fish for profit Pirates do not pay taxes on the fish they catch, nor do they follow safety standards and respect fishing laws To avoid getting caught, pirate ships go through legal loopholes, and transfer their catch to other vessels Transhipping, which allows the pirate vessel to stay at sea for many months at a time, therefore increasing catch levels Pirates use highly damaging equipment to no limit so they can minimize effort, and maximize profit 25% of global fish catches are made by pirates Pirates are estimated to be stealing 1 billion dollars worth of fish from South Africa and other developing countries that base their livings off of fishing Lack of Action from Fisheries Fishermen have no incentive not to overfish They believe their competitors are overfishing, which motivates them to do the same Fisheries do not preserve stocks High amounts of fish means it gets cheaper, which results in wasteful usage When one fishery gets fully exploited, another one is usually discovered New fisheries tend to have high catches, which attracts fishermen Advancement in technology causes overfishing because new, efficient equipment allows fisheries to catch a lot more fish
Most fisheries allow open access fishing, which means any person with a boat can fish to whatever extent one two three What Does It
Look Like? "To fish (a body of water) to such a degree as to upset the ecological balance or cause depletion of living creatures." research images video The Government Pirate Fishing Pirate Fishing Globally ... 2007 2010 2008 2009 World Fisheries Day is celebrated with highlightins from the steep decline of serious illegal fishing incidents in Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization waters Fishery Sustainability Checklist is introduced and will be used to evaluate Canada's fisheries and fisheries management to help the industry demonstrate the sustainability of their fish and seafood products - November April - Canada provides an $800,000 contribution to an international scientific research project investigating the mortality of Atlantic salmon February - - April Ministers Hearn and MacKay recognize the Canadian Forces for their fisheries enforcement efforts in the North Atlantic Ocean to combat IUU fishing Canada called on the International Commission for the conservation of Atlantic tuna (ICCAT) to protect Bluefin tuna from illegal fishing activities - November The Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) announces strong new actions to protect fish stocks and vulnerable marine ecosystems September - Fisheries and Oceans Canada collaborates with the U.S. to protect Great Lakes fisheries - February Canada signed the UN agreement to prevent IUU fishing November - Stop Destructive Fishing Restores depleted fisheries How To Prevent It Properly Manage the Ocean's valuable resources Marine Reserves MPA's
(Marine Protected Areas) areas in the ocean where overfishing and other harmful activities are strongly montitored for Stop Fishing for Top Predators sharks tuna swordfish Limit the Amount of Fish Being Caught since this rule is currently being ignored, penalties need to be more severe For Fisheries That Haven't Collapsed Yet ... conservation of wild species Strict management policies quotas systems area restrictions Suggest Global Fishing Grants to be Scrapped since this rule is currently being ignored, penalties need to be more severe fish can replenish themselves slows down fisheries Monitor Catch Levels Protecting Important Habitiats breeding grounds What the World is Doing/ Can Do to Help Canadian Citizens Buy fish from stores/fisheries that don’t use destructive fishing methods and do not overfish
Join, or donate to NGO’s since they work on donations so they can’t be cut off by the government
Not eating fish and getting others to stop decreases the demand for fish which then puts less stress on the fisheries to meet those demands
There are downloadable sustainable wallet cards that can confirm how destructive the suppliers of the fish company were in order to obtain the fish
Going on websites like Oceana can help prevent overfishing because all it needs is a person’s name to urge leaders to put an end to overfishing Canada's Achievements Towards Overfishing Uploaded Nov 26, 2011 High Demand for Seafood Even though it is a serious threat to ecosystems now, most fisheries still do not do enough to preserve fish

Greenpeace helps grocery stores that are not progressing as well The Emergency Oceans Rescue Plan is aimed at world leaders Greenpeace's goal is to have 40% of the Earth's water as marine reserves It is the best way to restore overfished oceans The Environmental Justice Foundation (EFG) work to expose pirate fishing, especially in West Africa

Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD) agreed to establish a global network of marine reserves by 2012

Benefits of marine reserves include ensuring healthy fisheries, overcoming food insecurity and poverty, restoring oceans to its natural form and sustaining life on Earth for future generations

This only requires political will

Created a red list of the most overfished species, and asks supermarkets to stop selling those fish and develop sustainable food policies
They produce an annual supermarket rating to assess the progress of grocery chains with the most sustainable seafood They are:
Loblaw's "African Fishermen to EU: Stop Stealing Our Fish!" International Business News, Financial News, Market News, Politics, Forex, Commodities - International Business Times - IBTimes.com. 05 May 2011. Web. 17 Jan. 2012. <http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/articles/20110505/african-fishermen-stop-stealing-our-fish.htm>.
Bren, Joanna. "International Policy: Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission - Pew Environment Group." Pew Environment Group. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://www.pewenvironment.org/news-room/compilations/international-policy-western-and-central-pacific-fisheries-commission-329224>.
"China's Fisheries Must Adapt to Meet EU Regulations." New Zealand's Guide to Sustainable Business. 24 Aug. 2009. Web. 17 Jan. 2012. <http://www.celsias.co.nz/article/chinas-fisheries-must-adapt-meet-eu-regulations/>.
Horton, Jennifer. "What's Depleting Salmon Populations?" HowStuffWorks. HowStuffWorks, Inc. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/outdoor-activities/fishing/fish-conservation/fish-populations/salmon-population1.htm>.
Kanyegiririe, Andrew. "Ministers to Tackle Food Investments through Security." CAADP News. 28 Apr. 2009. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://www.caadp.net/news/?m=200904>.
Keefe, Mike. "Overfishing." InToon.com. Web. Mar. 2011. <http://www.intoon.com/cartoons.cfm/id/96969>.
"Overfishing." GFA - Grow Fish Anywhere. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://growfishanywhere.com/world-review/overfishing.aspx>.
"Overfishing." GFA - Grow Fish Anywhere. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://growfishanywhere.com/world-review/overfishing.aspx>.
"Overfishing Photos - National Geographic." The Ocean -- National Geographic. Web. 11 Jan. 2012. <http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/photos/oceans-overfishing/>.
Pardau, Bo. "Huge School of Fish Loved by Photographers Almost Captured by Fishermen near Kona." Underwater Photography Guide. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://www.uwphotographyguide.com/akule-school-captured-kona>.
Pirate Fishing. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. <http://piratefishing.com/index.php?main_page=index>.
Ruais, Rich. "Pirate Fishing." Welcome to Fishermen's Voice. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://www.fishermensvoice.com/archives/102011Index.html>.
"Threats to Coral Fishing: Destructive Fishing." SEOS Coral Reefs. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://www.seos-project.eu/modules/coralreefs/coralreefs-c03-s07.html>.
Tsui, Bonnie. "Saving Coral Reefs Becomes a Tourism Priority - NYTimes.com." The New York Times. The New York Times Company, 24 June 2007. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://travel.nytimes.com/2007/06/24/travel/24headsup.html>.
Wells, Sue. "Tanzania: Deadly Dynamite Fishing Resurfaces | World Resources Institute." Global Warming, Climate Change, Ecosystems, Sustainable Markets, Good Governance & the Environment. World Resources Institute. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://www.wri.org/publication/reefs-at-risk-revisited/stories/tanzania>. Watches, Hurricane. "Why Is Canada Ocean in Crisis?" YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Google, 06 Nov. 2011. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k6DT74Fi_JA>.
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