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Transcript of Chapter 39
Misplaced - phrases that wonder away from what they modify.
Squinting - a modifier that looks two ways, leaving the reader uncertain of what it modifies.
Dangling - a modifier that doesn't modify anything in it's sentence.
Mixed Constructions and Faulty Predication
Coordination and Subordination
Normal Sentences: In a normal sentence, a writer puts the subject before a verb at the beginning of the main clause. This pattern is the most common in English language.
Most college students today want interesting classes.
• Keep modifiers in place
• Have complete sentences
• Avoid mixed construction and faulty predication
• Use parallel structure
• Make sure your sentences are linked together properly
• Use a variety of sentences
Failure to complete a thought
Lacks a subject or predicate
*happens when phrases or clauses are joined even though they do not logically belong together.
(wrong)- Although cookies are her favorite dessert, but she still likes ice cream.
(right)- Although cookies are her favorite dessert, she still likes ice cream
(right)- cookies are her favorite dessert, but she still likes ice cream.
Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have equal importance.
*Happens when a verb and its subject, object, or modifier do not match.
Coordinate clauses are sentences that are related to the same topics. They are both equally important sentences.
"Dave fell off of his bike. He broke his leg."
"Dave fell off of his bike, and broke his leg."
When writing an effective sentence, join two main clauses with a coordinating conjunction.
*Keep in mind that coordinate clauses only work if they make a coherent point.
Sam does not want to subscribe to a magazine.
Sam does not have time to read.
When starting a comparison, finish it.
Make sure the things you are comparing are of the same kind.
-When comparing an item with others of its kind, use the phrase "any other."
Death Valley is drier than any other place in the U.S.
One that leaves out words that are unnecessary but clearly understood by readers.
Incomplete: The train neither goes nor returns from Middletown.
Complete: The train neither goes to nor returns from Middletown.
To contrast two things, use the comparative form of an adjective followed by:
-than, better than, more than, fewer than.
Incomplete- The white house is smaller but just as beautiful as Buckingham palace.
Complete- The white house is smaller than but just as beautiful as Bunkingham Palace.
Jessica offered candy to all the children in colorful packages.
-Jessica offered candy in colorful packages to all the children.
The movie that appealed to Lauren tremendously bored Marcus.
-The movie that appealed to Lauren bored Marcus tremendously.
Having finish the assignment Jack turned on the t.v.
-Having finish the assignment the t.v was turned on.
Ross loves spending time online more than Dee.
This sentence could mean two different things.
Sam does not want to subscribe to the magaine, nor does he have time to read.
* Be sure to only coordinate clauses if they are logically related.
Coordinating & Subordinating Conjunctions
Excessive: Easy Goer was the Kentucky Derby favorite, and all the sportscasters expected him to win, but he runs poorly on a muddy track, and it rained on derby day, so Sunday Silence beat him.
Revised: Easy Goer was the Kentucky Derby favorite, and all the sportscasters expected him to win. However, he runs poorly on a muddy track, and it rained on derby day. Therefore, Sunday Silence beat him
In and inverted sentence, a writer inverts or reverses the subject-verb order to emphasize an idea in the predicate.
Normal: My peers are uninterested in reading.
Inverted: How uninterested in reading are my peers!
In a cumulative sentence, a writer piles details at the end of a sentence to help readers visualize a scene or understand an idea.
Periodic Sentences: The positions of emphasis in a sentence are the beginning and the end. In a periodic sentence, a writer suspends the main clause for a climactic ending, emphasizing an idea by withholding it until the end.
Example: Leaning back in his chaie, shaking his head slowly back and forth, frustrated over his inability to solve the quadratic equation, Franklin scowled.
How to make an effective sentence:
Make sure your phrases and clauses are
linked together properly.
1. Relate the different parts of a sentence logically.
(wrong) The coupons go on sale every week for the different items.
(right) The coupons are printed every week for the sale items.
2. Avoid starting definition with when or where.
(wrong) Hypothermia is when you have an abnormally high fever.
(right) Hypothermia is and abnormally high fever.
3. Avoid using "the reason is because'
(wrong) The reason he is happy is because someone gave him money.
(right) He is happy because someone gave him money.
Coordinating conjunctions cues your reader to expect a parallel structure.
In a series linked by correlative conjunctions, keep all elements in the same grammatical form.
(wrong) Take my advice: try neither to be first nor last in the lunch line.
(right) Take my advice: try to be neither first nor last in the lunch line.