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Transcript of Behaviour Management
1.Poor relationships between teachers and students.
2.Inadequate setting of tasks-boredom, uncertainty or confusion
3.Teachers not being aware of what’s going on in your classroom-
don’t let small issues develop into big ones! Matti Kuorelahti, (2001),"Meeting the needs of behaviourally challenging pupils - Assessing school life as experienced by pupils with emotional/behavioural difficulties" Assertive Discipline - Lee Canter (1970's) There are three common causes for students becoming resistive; Teachers often ask what to do, how to manage with emotional and behavioural difficulties in school. Teachers would like to know some kind of 'tricks' that they think special educational professionals use. Of course, it's not a question of tricks, it's a question of attitudes, knowledge about behavioural disturbances
and acceptance of him/herself as a teacher in his/her personal way. How to create a positive learning environment By Caroline Cresswell, Elliot Armitage and Frances Collingham 1.Set firm and fair rules
2.A set of positive consequences
3.A set of negative consequences
4.A plan to implement this with the class Logical Consequences – Rudolph Dreikurs (1968) “Students misbehavior is an outgrowth of their unmet needs” Teacher Effectiveness Training (Gordon, 1997) •Similar to 'logical consequences' •Facilitate shift management from teachers to students•Students to regulate and manage their own behavior•I-messages – focus on your feelings and not what the student has done wrong•De-emphasizes the role of the teacher in establishing good classroom management. The 'ABC' approach WALT Antecedent Look at what leads up to the situation, the setting for the behaviour Behaviour Examine the actual behaviour itself Consequences Look at the outcomes of the behaviour Identify what we can do to encourage positive behaviour, and help to stop bad behaviour before it starts. How well organised is your classroom?
Look around you.... Classroom layout - audit You are the most effective tool for encouraging positive behaviour within your class. Teaching & Learning: Lessons from Psychology
Richard Fox Body language
Move around the classroom
Look confident even if you don't feel it!
Communicate enthusiastically and with energy-vary your pitch and volume
Speak at a volume that can be heard by the class, but don't shout over pupils
Make eye contact and address pupils directly
Show them that you care about what you do and how you do it How do you think you might promote positive behaviour? How can you start to build relationships with your students? 'Teaching is a sharing of self with others' Brenneman, Orr, N. ‘Teacher self-acceptance, acceptance of others, and pupil control Ideology’ in The journal of experimental Education (Abingdon: Taylor & Francis, 1975) Vol.4, No.1 pp14-17 Teacher Preparation The effects of strong initial preparation result in new teachers not only
staying in the profession at higher rates, but they also become competent more quickly
than those who learn by trial and error (Sykes and Darling-Hammond, 2003: 25).
How prepared are you? Russian Proverb "features that tend to impede learning include providing grades or overall scores indicating the student's standing relative to peers, and coupling such normative feedback with low levels of specificity" A key distinction Summative: Assessment of Learning Formative: Assesment for Learning It is the right of everyone including the teacher, to feel physically and emotionally safe, to be treated with dignity and respect, to be listened to and to learn.
If students feel vulnerable to humiliation or failure they are likely to adopt defensive strategies. Seating students in rows or clusters (MacAulay, 1990; Walker & Walker, 1991).
All students should have a clear view of the teacher and vice versa (Stewart & Evans, 1997; Walker et al., 1995; Walker & Walker, 1991).
Strategically place students (Bettenhausen,1998)
Keep classroom well organised (Stewart & Evans, 1997). For every right there is a responsibility-we’re all accountable for our behaviour. (Covey 1989)
Rules are centered around rights and responsibilities. They should form a contract between all class members, be negotiated within the class and be expressed in positive phrases, written in terms of what you and your pupils will do. Use Moseley’s 1996 Circle Time Approach.
Keep it to around 5 rules, make them prominent and possibly in picture form for some pupils. The ABC approach Establishing a climate of acceptance builds self-esteem and relationships. This improves communication which in turn allows greater understanding.
Pupils want equal and fair treatment with the rest of the class.
Avoid blaming the whole class-this is positive with regards to awarding achievement but whole class sanctions have a negative effect. Shute, V.'Focus on Formative Feedback' in American educational Research , p156 Marking every book for every class is understandably daunting, which can lead to this... "Use of approaches in which pupils are compared with one another, the prime purpose of which appears to them to be competition rather than personal improvement. In consequence, [unfocused] assessment feedback teaches pupils with low attainments that they lack 'ability', so they are de-motivated, believing that they are not able to learn" William, D & Black, P, ‘ Inside the Black Box. Raising standards through classroom assessment’ (London: KCL, 2001) Most teachers point to pupils with difficult behaviour when they are asked what makes their job so difficult. A positive, inclusive
school ethos in which
all pupils are valued has been consistently
shown from research
to be an important factor in promoting positive behaviour If you regard the child
as 'abnormal' then this changes the focus of the response to the needs of the child from the classroom teacher to someone else, absolving them of responsibility. Burns, R. ‘Acceptance of self, acceptance of others, and preferred teaching approach’ in Pacific Asian Education (Sydney: Australian Educational Researcher, 1990) Vol.2, no.1, pp55-64 Gray, Miller & Noakes 1994 "Our Data indicates that acceptance of others- but not self-acceptance- predicts teacher pupil control" "The results of this study suggest that those with low acceptance prefer to avoid close encounters with pupils" Burns, R. ‘Acceptance of self, acceptance of others, and preferred teaching approach’ in Pacific Asian Education (Sydney: Australian Educational Researcher, 1990) Vol.2, no.1, pp55-64 It is not the horse that draws the cart, but the oats' Behind the scenes... which in turn, can create this... 'Pupils with inappropriate
behaviour should not be
given interesting tasks and
outings as this seems very
unfair to those who
conform to the rules.' “If you experience problems in your lesson, you can find that your confidence drops and defensiveness takes over” "It’s far more useful to stay relentlessly positive” Cowley, S. ‘Getting the Buggers to Behave’ (London: Continuum International Publishing Group,2001) Munn, cullen, Johnston & Lloyd (1997)
Visser et al (2002) 1-5% of students display
frequent and often intense
patterns of disruptive
behaviour. Although we may favour
one approach over others,
there is a need to learn to
work with multiple concepts Norwich (1996) Galloway & Goodwin (1987) 'Some things do work, sometimes'. Lane (1994) Teacher's Survival Guide 2nd Edition Teacher Qualities Whiteboards! Scenario!
A: Raise your voice and threaten to send out of the room if they do not answer properly
B:Ignore him and move onto the next person in the register
C:Ask one more time firmly and calmly explaining there will be consequences if they do not answer properly
D: NOT SURE!