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Newspaper's History-Chapter 8
Transcript of Newspaper's History-Chapter 8
1690, first colonial newspaper, Benjamin Harris's Publick Occurrences
By 1765 there were two types of newspapers--political/partisan and commercial.
In the 1700s partisan press develops as political parties support newspapers
Newspapers as Mass Media
Steam engine press
Dropped cost to a penny
Sold at newsstands (not subscription)
Relied on advertising for funding instead of political parties
Some stories were fabricated
Higher literacy rates
Yellow Journalism-- 1890s
Named after The Yellow Kid cartoon character
Pulitzer and Hearst compete against each other
Models of Journalism
Challenges facing newspapers
Readership in decline since 1940s
Struggle to attract young readers
Visual journalistic style of TV
Number of daily papers declines since 1960s
Consolidation of newspaper chains
Cost cutting and layoffs with declining revenue
Transition to online is difficult
Little time constraints with breaking news
No space constraints
Less expensive production
Less expensive distribution
Crowd sourcing and participation
Online only newspapers
New York World
William Randolph Hearst
New York Journal
Developed in late 1090s in response to yellow journalism
Impartiality in writing with neutral voice
Both sides of the story
Och's-The New York Times said, "All the news that's fit to print."
Begins in 1920s
Includes news analysis and context of stories
Response to competition
Separates news from opinion
Challenges for online news
Types of Online Journalism
Advantages Over Print
The Penny Press
Began in 1960s
Journalists lost credibility
Began exploring storytelling
Attack on objectivity with advocate-style journalism
Slick online newspapers reflect elements of Postmodernism
USA Today used TV-inspired color and design
Bloggers, YouTube, Twitter challenge more traditional journalists
Given today’s digital media landscape, news writing is not limited to professional journalists and traditional news media. Now, anyone can be a reporter and disseminate their stories via the Internet. Many of these stories do not hold up to customary journalist standards of objectivity or fact checking, yet some citizen journalism stories are indeed creative, personal, provocative, well-produced and, above all, newsworthy.
Write a short paragraph for each of the five steps in the critical process on the topic of democracy and citizen journalism.
For a complete description of this assignment, see documentation associated with week two.
Democracy and Citizen Journalism
a short video on citizen journalism
Click on any of the photos to see them up close.