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DARK TOURISM

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by

Valérie C

on 28 November 2013

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Transcript of DARK TOURISM

DARK
TOURISM

The fine line between business and memory
TABLE
OF
CONTENTS
Introduction

The offer & the demand : major actors in Dark Tourism

Why is Dark Tourism seen as controversial

Our point of view

Conclusion and recommendations

References

INTRODUCTION
What is
Dark Tourism ?
Appeared in 1996, well known in 2000

Complicated subject, multiple definitions

Lennon and Foley (2005) “[…] As visitation to any site associated with death, disaster and tragedy in the 20th century for rememberance, education or entertainment"

Disaster tourism, Poverty tourism, Suicide tourism, Doomsday tourism and Grief tourism
Dark tourism is
not a new phenomenon
Not hugely known but becomes more popular and continues to grow
Grief Tourism
Most widespread type of Dark Tourism in the world

Kind of sightseeing when you travel somewhere to visit a scene of some tragic event

Ground Zero
Focus on
Omaha beach
Auschwitz
1,5 million visitors in 2012
The
offer
& the
demand
WHY IS DARK TOURISM SEEN AS
CONTROVERSIAL
?
POPULAR
'DARK SPOTS'
Ground Zero
Tower of London
Cemetery St Laurent
Cemetery Père Lachaise
Robben island museum
Auschwitz
REMEMBERANCE, MEMORY
bUSINESS
1000
1900
1950
2000
time

Dark ages : Cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum
2.5 million visitors
1945 : Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings
246 000 people died / 1 million visitors
1986 :

Chernobyl
3000 visitors
2005 : Hurricane Katrina
1836 people died
COMMON POINT ?
Dark Tourists motivations

Educational motives : culture, awareness

Emotional motives : recreation of the past, nostalgia

Curiosity : history, heritage sites, fascination
The
offer
& the
demand
From the consumer side
The
offer
& the
demand
From the provider side
Although some people think it is a lucrative business

Objective = preservation of spaces
The
offer
& the
demand
Management considerations
Level of acceptable commodification

Interpretation & presentation of the story

Access and time management
How
do specialists
manage the sites
to recreate history & memories ?

Is the tourism industry
taking advantage
of these sites of disaster ?
"The people who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" (Scribner)

DT is related to culture and history play an essential role

Providers tempt to recreate sites as they were in the past
WHY IS DARK TOURISM SEEN AS
CONTROVERSIAL
?
Ethical battle leisure VS tragedy

Commoditisation of death for profit
Immorality or exploiting other people's live
Insensitive behaviour of tourists
Conflicting interpretations of Dark sites
Is the excessive marketing of theses sites acceptables?

How to manage and find the right balance business/memory?

Dark Tourism providers responsibility !
To answer that
:
Robben island
Prison located in Cape town
Apartheid - Nelson Mandela (18 years)
Originally to learn about the danger of oppression, symbol of hope
1999 : "commercialisation"
Changed purpose of memories and educational
PERE LACHAISE CEMETERY
Largest cemetery in Paris
Some famous people are buried here
3,5 million visitors/year
Visitors do not go to the place where the death has occurred



§
NOT A DARK TOURISM SITE §
GROUND ZERO
9/11 : 2996 died
Ruins attracted 3,6 M
Observation deck : 1,8 M
YES, A DARK TOURISM SITE §
OMAHA BEACH
End of battle in Normandy :

More than 10 american cemeteries
100 small burial grounds
People are going there to pay tribute to military

YES, A DARK TOURISM SITE §
IN THE MIDDLE ...
TOWER OF LONDON
2,4 M visitors/year
Site of brutal executions of famous people and royals
More considered as a "dark fun factory"


BUSINESS DRIVEN DARK TOURISM§
OUR
POINT OF VIEW
Some sites are darker than others
Ethical question : too recent?
For us, good way to retrace the past and educate people
conclusion
&

recommendations
People will never stop visiting these sites

"Dark tourism doesn't need dark tourists [...] It just needs people who are interested in learning about life and this world".

Ethical debate : balance Memory/Business
Importance of management
For us, dark tourism is a way to make sure we remember and we never forget.
REFERENCES
thANK YOU

FOR YOUR
ATTENTION
Full transcript