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Transcript of Expectation Effects
Person Cues (gender, size, race)
Performance Cues (actual skills displayed)
Athlete performance conforms
to initial expectations
Reinforce self or others' beliefs
some athletes "resilient"
Some groups are at risk for this phenomenon:
other groups susceptible to stereotypes (race, gender)
Dr. Sean Mullen
Expectations affect Behavior
Frequency and quality of interactions differ by perceived expectancy
Quantity and quality of feedback & instruction differs
Behavior Impacts Athlete Performance & Behavior
Degree of skill improvement may differ
Perceptions of competence and self-esteem may decline
Athlete may not put forth as much effort
Original skill assessment should be based on an athlete's effort
Be flexible & revisit coaching decisions
Keep track of amount of time spent with athletes - treat everyone equitably
Respond to skill errors with corrective instruction (for all skill levels)
Emphasize skill development and improvement over absolute performance
How can a coach avoid expectancies that result in self-fulfilling prophecies?