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Expectation Effects

KIN 247: A brief introduction to expectancy effects and the "self-fulfilling prophecy"
by

Sean Mullen

on 23 October 2015

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Transcript of Expectation Effects

Expectations Are Formed...
Person Cues (gender, size, race)

Performance Cues (actual skills displayed)
Athlete performance conforms
to initial expectations
Reinforce self or others' beliefs
some athletes "resilient"
Some groups are at risk for this phenomenon:
children
late-maturing adolescents
other groups susceptible to stereotypes (race, gender)
Dr. Sean Mullen
Expectation Effects
Expectations affect Behavior
Frequency and quality of interactions differ by perceived expectancy

Quantity and quality of feedback & instruction differs
Behavior Impacts Athlete Performance & Behavior
Degree of skill improvement may differ

Perceptions of competence and self-esteem may decline

Athlete may not put forth as much effort


Original skill assessment should be based on an athlete's effort
Be flexible & revisit coaching decisions

Keep track of amount of time spent with athletes - treat everyone equitably

Respond to skill errors with corrective instruction (for all skill levels)

Emphasize skill development and improvement over absolute performance
How can a coach avoid expectancies that result in self-fulfilling prophecies?
Full transcript