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AP U.S. History: Chapters 27 & 30 Review

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Thomas Martin

on 16 February 2014

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Transcript of AP U.S. History: Chapters 27 & 30 Review

AP U.S. History:
Chapters 27 & 30 Review

Chapter 27: Empire and Expansion
America Turns Outwards
As agriculture and industry developed, farmers and manufacturers began looking for foreign markets
Some Americans believed the country would expand or explode from its new sense of power and unrest in labor and agriculture
Yellow journalism glorified foreign exploits
Missionaries looked to spread their religion and ways of society
Countries like Japan, Russia, and multiple European nations scrambled for colonial territory
The development of a navy focused attention overseas
Efforts by Sec. of State James G. Blaine to impose a "Big Sister" foreign policy on Latin America to increase Pan-American trading led to a Pan-American conference
Diplomatic crises and near-wars over minor disputes in the late 19th Century showed the new aggressive sense of power in the U.S.
The British started the practice of "patting the eagle's head", or reconciling with the U.S.
Spurning the
Hawaiian Pear
Hawaii served as a way station for American ships
America draws closer to Hawaii by warning other world powers away and by enacting a treaty
Due to disease, many native Hawaiians died; Asian immigrants were imported to work the sugar cane fields, leading to a fear of Japan taking control over the islands
The McKinley Tariff hurt the sugar industry and encouraged white American planters in Hawaii to seek annexation
Their efforts were blocked by Queen Liliuokalani, who wanted native Hawaiian rule over the islands
A successful white revolt in Hawaii led to an annexation treaty; however, Cleveland refused to sign it, and Hawaii was not annexed until later on
Rise in Revolt
Cubans revolted against their Spanish rulers in 1895 due to economic losses
Rebels ("insurrectos") burned cane fields, sugar mills, and blew up passenger trains
The revolt endangered American interests on the island (economic and political, because whoever controlled Cuba would control the Gulf of Mexico)
Cubans were put into concentration camps by Spanish General "Butcher" Weyler
Atrocities in Cuba provided fuel for sensational "yellow journalism" in America which outraged the public
In 1898, the U.S. sent the Maine to Cuba in case Americans needed evacuation or protection; the Maine was mysteriously destroyed, leading to hundreds of deaths
Spain insisted the incident was accidental; an American investigation argued that a submarine mine had blown up the ship
American animosity towards Spain increased despite Spaniard diplomats agreeing to American terms (no camps, armistice with the rebels)
McKinley didn't want war, but he didn't want Spain to have Cuba; he also didn't want Cuba to be independent
McKinley urged Congress to go to war, and Congress responded accordingly
The Teller Amendment was passed, and proclaimed to the world that the U.S. would free Cuba and then give it its independence
Dewey's May Day
Victory at Manila
Americans went to war lightheartedly
Theodore Roosevelt instructed Commodore George Dewey to strike the Spanish Philippines
On May 1st, 1898 Dewey attacked Manila with amazing success; Dewey became an instant national hero
American troops captured Manila with help from Filipino insurgent Emilio Aguinaldo
A need for a way station and a fear of Japanese intervention led to the annexation of Hawaii
The Confused
Invasion of Cuba
After the Spanish-American War started, Spain sent a fleet to Cuba
The American fleet easily blockaded the Spanish "armada"
An American army would be sent in from the rear to drive out Spanish ships; the force would be led by General William R. Shafter
A part of the army known as the "Rough Riders" were made up of volunteers, commanded by Colonel Leonard Wood, and organized by Theodore Roosevelt
Shafter's forces landed near Santiago with little resistance
Spaniards were forced out of Santiago on July 3rd
Puerto Rico was also captured by America
On August 12, 1898, Spain signed an armistice
Disease caused the most deaths; if the Spaniards had held out a little while longer, they may have won because of the sick American soldiers
America's Course (Curse?) of Empire
Cuba was freed from Spain
The U.S. secured Guam and Puerto Rico
McKinley was faced with a dilemma: if the U.S. left the Philippines completely, it would make the U.S. look weak, and the Philippines might be captured by a world power, or descend into anarchy; if they tried to give it back to Spain, it would hurt America's honor
The least evil option was to acquire the islands and perhaps give them their freedom later
Protestant missionaries were eager to convert Filipinos; businessmen wanted to do business in the Philippines
McKinley annexes the Philippines and pays Spain $20 million
The question of the Philippines sparked a debate about America's national identity
Opponents to annexation said that it would go against America's anticolonial policy
Proponents argued that the annexation continued a glorious history of expansion that had already pushed Americans to the West Coast; Theodore Roosevelt supported the annexation
The Anti-Imperialist League came about in protest of the annexation
Proponents appealed to patriotism, and so the annexation treaty was passed
Perplexities in
Puerto Rico and Cuba
The Foraker Act of 1900 gave Puerto Ricans some degree of popular government
In 1917, Congress granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship
American regime improved quality of life, but Puerto Ricans still wanted independence
In the Insular Cases, the Supreme Court ruled the Constitution did not necessarily apply to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos
The American military regime in Cuba (led by General Leonard Wood) improved the government and the quality of life (such as wiping out yellow fever)
The U.S. withdrew from Cuba in 1902
The Platt Amendment - part of the Cuban Constitution - forbids Cuba from making a treaty that would compromise their independence and not to take on debt more than their resources; they also agreed that the U.S. could intervene militarily as it saw fit
U.S. repealed the amendment in 1934
New Horizons
in Two Hemispheres
The Spanish-American War advertised America's world power status, and made Europeans acknowledge America's prestige
A martial spirit swept over America
The war helped to heal the wounds of the Civil War
America had burdened itself without fully understanding or preparing for the consequences of being an imperial power
"Little Brown Brothers" in the Philippines
Bitterness towards America in the Philippines resulted in insurgencies led by Emilio Aguinaldo
Filipinos initiated guerilla warfare; America built concentration camps
America defeated the Filipino insurgency in 1901 by capturing Aguinaldo
William H. Taft - future president - became the civil governor of the Philippines
America spent money trying to improve and "Americanize" the Filipinos against their wishes
The Philippines got their freedom in 1946; many Filipinos immigrated to the U.S. in the meantime
Hinging the Open Door in China
European powers essentially deconstructed the Chinese government
Growing American alarm from missionaries and businessmen convinced the government to act
Sec. of State John Hay sent the "Open Door" note in 1899 to major world powers, urging them to respect Chinese rights and the ideal of fair competition
The Chinese did not want to be used like a door mat for the Western world; the Boxer Rebellion erupted in opposition to foreigners and Chinese Christians
A multinational rescue force stopped the rebellion
The invader countries that stopped the rebellion billed China for $333 million
Secretary Hay announced that China would be embraced by the Open Door policy in 1900
Imperialism or
Bryanism in 1900?
McKinley was renominated by the Republicans in 1900; Theodore Roosevelt was his VP running mate
Roosevelt was popular after his Cuban campaign; political bosses in New York found him hard to control, so they tried to make Roosevelt the VP to get him out of NY
The plot worked well, and Roosevelt was nominated
William Jennings Bryan was the Democratic nominee; their platform was against Republican imperialism as the main issue
Roosevelt toured the country to drum up Republican support
McKinley wins; the election was not a mandate for imperialism, but for prosperity and protectionism
TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick
McKinley was assassinated by an anarchist in September of 1901; Roosevelt became president
Roosevelt denounced pacifism and championed the military
Roosevelt believed above all that the president should lead boldly; was not respectful of the checks and balances and thought the president could take any action not forbidden by the Constitution
the Panama Canal
The Spanish-America War led to more support for a canal across Central America
A canal would increase the strength of the navy, make it easier to defend new territories, and facilitate trade
The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty between Britain and the U.S. overrode the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty and allowed the U.S. to build and fortify the canal
The canal was built in Panama because the New Panama Canal Company 9led by Philippe Bunau-Varilla) offered the lowest price for construction
Original monetary offers to Colombia (the owner of Panama) were refused
Panamanians and the NPCC, afraid of losing the economic prosperity brought by a canal, revolted in 1903
The U.S. used the navy to prevent Colombian forces from interfering with Panama
The Hay-Bunau-Varilla (signed between the U.S. and Panama) gave America 10 miles of land for the canal for $40 million
Roosevelt did not plan on separating Panama from Colombia, but the Panamanian rebels used his "big-stick" personality in their favor
Relations between the U.S. and Latin America soured after the apparent "rape of Panama"
Construction began in 1904; it was finished in 1914 by Colonel George Washington Goethals with a price tag of $400 million
TR's Perversion
of Monroe's Doctrine
Many Latin American countries (Venezuela, Dominican Republic) were indebted to European countries like Germany
Roosevelt feared that if European countries got involved in Latin America because of debt issues, they would remain there and violate the Monroe Doctrine
Roosevelt's policy of "preventive intervention" (Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine) led him to pay off the debts of Latin American countries and keep Europe out of the Western Hemisphere
To Latin Americas, the "Colossus of the North" was exercising excessive power over the region
Roosevelt on
the World Stage
Fighting between Russia and Japan broke out
Japan asked Roosevelt to sponsor peace negotiations; he agreed
Roosevelt received the Nobel Peace Pize in 1906 for his facilitation of peace
The diplomatic glory came at a price: Russian-American relations and Japanese-American relations were hurt
Japanese Laborers
in California
Japanese immigrants came to the U.S. because of the economic effects of the Russo-Japanese War
In 1906, when San Francisco's school board tried to segregate Asians from white students led to an international crisis
The Japanese saw the incident as an insult to them and there dispersed children
Roosevelt broke the deadlock by making California repeal their decision and encouraging the Japanese government to stop giving passports to prospective immigrants (this was known as the "Gentlemen's Agreement")
Roosevelt sent the entire battleship fleet on a world voyage to prove its strength
A warm welcome from Japan during the voyage led to the Root-Takahira agreement in 1908; it required both countries to respect their territories and to uphold the Open Door in China
Chapter 30: The War to End War
War by Act
of Germany
President Woodrow Wilson asks Congress to arm the merchant marine; Senate filibustering proves the strength of American isolationism
Arthur Zimmermann (the German foreign secretary) asked Mexico to form an alliance against the U.S. in a note; the publication of this note caused uproar in the U.S. especially in westerners
When German U-boats sank U.S. merchant vessels, and the Russian tsars were overthrown, Wilson asks for a declaration of war
Idealism Enthroned
The pressure of war fell upon Wilson's scholarly, respectful shoulders
Congress was generally supportive of the war, although the Midwest showed the greatest opposition
Wilson declared that the war was to make the world safe for democracy in order to get the country into action; his altruism contrasted with the selfish aims of other powers in the conflict
Wilson actually believed what he promoted, especially that the world could not handle the type of war industrial states were capable of waging
Wilson's tactics worked very well, and got the public fired up
Wilson's Fourteen Potent Points
Wilson became the moral leader of the Allies; his Fourteen Point Address inspired the allies to fight harder while demoralizing enemy governments
Wilson's first five points (very broad) were: abolish secret treaties, freedom of the seas, remove economic barriers, reduce armament burdens, and adjust colonial claims in the interests of natives and colonizers
Other points held out hope of independence for minority groups like the Poles
The last point foreshadowed the League of Nations
Wilson wanted the future LoN to guarantee political and territorial stability to all nations regardless of size
Some Allied leaders and some Republicans disliked Wilson's ideas
Creel Manipulates Minds
Getting people ready to go to war was a challenge; to solve it, the Committee on Public Information was created
George Creel (journalist) headed the CPI; his job was to sell the war to America and sell Wilson's war aims to the world
The Creel organization gave speeches all over the globe; other forms of propaganda like posters, pamphlets, booklets, music, and movies were also used
Creel did too well of a job because Wilson did not live up to expectations
Enforcing Loyalty
and Stifling Dissent
While German Americans were very loyal to the U.S., rumors of sabotage, spying, etc spread about them
Anti-German hysteria and hatred swept the nation
The Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sedition Act of 1918 both threatened free speech and led to the prosecution of antiwar Socialists and political radicals
Eugene V. Debs was a notable Socialist who was prosecuted and sentenced under the Espionage Act
Almost any criticism of government could be censored
In Schenck v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled the laws to be constitutional
The Nation's
Factories Go to War
The U.S. was largely unprepared for WWI
Obstacles to mobilizing the economy included ignorance of the manufacturing capacity of the country and traditional fear of large-scale government
Wilson's War Industries Board (under Bernard Baruch) was a step towards imposing order on the economy, although it was always weak and toothless
in Wartime
The War Dept threatened to draft any unemployed men straight into the military, therefore discouraging strikes
For the most part, the government treated labor fairly
The National War Labor Board (chaired by Howard Taft) prevented dangerous labor disputes and pressed employers to grant concessions to labor
The Board never gave a guarantee of the right to organize unions
The AFL supported the war, while smaller, radical groups did not, and were punished for it
The AFL's membership grew after the war, and wages increased in some industries
Inflation threatened to make wage increases useless
A steel strike in 1919 ultimately failed and set back the labor movement
Many southern blacks were drawn to the North during the war, leading to sporadic racial violence and riots
Until Suffrage
Women heeded the call of patriotism and took jobs vacated by men in the war
War splits the women's movement b/w progressive pacifists (National Women's Party; Alice Paul) and those who supported the war (National American Women Suffrage Association) on the grounds that women must be involved with the war effort in order to play a role in peacemaking (latter was the larger movement)
Wilson endorsed women's suffrage; statewide extensions of suffrage are soon followed by the 19th Amendment in 1920 which gave all women the right to vote
Women triumphed politically, but gained little economically; many women left their jobs after the war, and Congress showed their support for the traditional women's roles as mothers with the Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act of 1921 (provided instruction in maternal and infant health care)
Forging a
War Economy
War mobilization had to depend on emotional patriotism instead of laws; this shows America's lack of large-scale government oversight and its safe distance away from the fighting
Herbert C. Hoover was chosen to lead the Food Administration (in order to feed the U.S. and the Allies)
Hoover relied on voluntary compliance, not compulsion
Hoover used propganda to save food for export
The war-spawn spirit of self-denial gave strength to the Prohibition movement
In 1919, the 18th Amendment was passed and banned alcohol
Other agencies like the Fuel Administration would use Hoover's tactics too
Bonds were sold, and taxes were raised, in order to pay for the war
Wilson favored voluntary mobilization, although the federal government did take over the railroad system in 1917
Making Plowboys
into Doughboys
Most people did not expect to send men into the war (until this point, America had just supported the Allies with loans, their navy, war materials, and food
As the Allies began to run out of men, America was called on to supply an army
A draft, though Wilson disliked it, was needed to raise an army that quickly
A draft bill eventually was passed with some difficulty
The draft only exempted men in certain vital industries; it required all men from ages 18-45 to register
The draft worked considerably well
For the first time, women worked in the armed forces
African Americans in the army were segregated and usually did not fight
Although men were supposed to be trained before going into battle, that often was not the case
Fighting in
France - Belatedly
After Russia withdrew from the war, more German soldiers were able to focus on France
Germany had successfully predicted American logistical hardships such as raising and transporting an army
The first American soldiers in France were used as replacements
American troops were sent to Archangel, Russia to prevent ammunition stockpiles from falling into German hands
America also intervened in Siberia
America Helps
Hammer the "Hun"
A large Germany attack on the Western front in 1918 caused the Allies to unite under one commander
American troops helped to prevent the collapse of France in May 1918
In July 1918, at the Second Battle of the Marne, Germany never fully recovered after their lost
Some Americans wanted their own army and forces in Europe; American General John J. Pershing was put in charge of a Western front line
Pershing's army took part in the Meuse-Argonne offensive; the battle lasted 47 days and led to the deaths of 120,000 Americans
The Germans were ready to surrender
The Fourteen Points
Disarm Germany
Germany sought a peace agreement based on Wilson's fourteen points
Wilson made Germany oust its kaiser before negotiations were to begin
Germany surrenders on November 11th, 1918
The U.S.'s main contributions to the war were: foodstuffs, munitions, credit, oil, and manpower
The prospect of endless U.S. troop reserves is what made the Germans surrender
Wilson Steps
Down from Olympus
Wilson did not live up to the world's expectations after the war
Political squabbles were kept quiet during the war; Wilson's campaigning for a Democratic victory during the congressional elections of 1918 backfired (a Republican majority was elected instead); this loss diminished his status as a statesman at the negotiation table
Wilson's decision to go to Paris and not take Republican senators
Henry Cabot Lodge, a Republican senator, was Wilson's political and personal enemy
An Idealist Battles
the Imperialists in Paris
The European people welcomed Wilson, but their statesmen did not like his idealism
The Paris Conference for peace came under the hands of the "Big Four": President Woodrow Wilson of the U.S., Premier Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain, and Premier Georges Clemenceau of France
The conference needed to be speedy; Europe was descending into anarchy and communism was spreading westward from Russia
Wilson's ultimate goal was the League of Nations; first he made a compromise concerning colonialism and territories
Wilson envisioned a global parliament where every nation had a seat, and the big powers controlled a governing councils
In 1919, Old World diplomats agreed to the League Covenant
Out the Treaty
Some Republican senators in Congress criticized Wilson's League of Nations as being too weak or too overpowering
The core of these senators were a group of isolationists led by William Borah and Hiram Johnson; they were known as the "irreconcilables" or "the Battalion of Death"
France demanded for a German-inhabited area known as Saar Valley; they settled for a compromise where the area would remain under the League of Nations; also, France got the Security Treaty where Britain and the U.S. promised to defend France in the event of another German invasion
Italy and Yugoslavia wanted the seaport of Flume; after Wilson's insisting, the port went to Yugoslavia, causing Italy to turn against him
Wilson outraged China by allowing Japan to take temporary control over China's Shandong Peninsula
The Peace Treaty
that Bred a New War
The Treaty of Versailles was not true to Wilson's points like Germany had hoped; Germany was outraged at the treaty's vengeful tone
Adolf Hitler would later reiterate this outrage during his rise to power
Wilson had to give up on some of points to compromise with the Allies, and in order to save his League of Nations
The treaty did liberate millions of minority peoples like the Poles; Wilson prevented the treaty from being an Old-Time piece of grasping imperialism
The Domestic
Parade of Prejudice
When Wilson returned to America, isolationists were outraged over the Treaty and the League of Nations
German-haters disliked the treaty for not being harsh enough
Liberals thought the treaty was too harsh
Ethnic groups like German Americans and Italian Americans were dissatisfied because the treaty did not favor their native lands
Irish Americans disliked the League because they felt the British were overrepresented
Wilson's Tour
and Collapse (1919)
When Wilson returned home with the treaty, a majority of Americans still saw it favorably; Senator Lodge wanted to amend the treaty so that Republicans could take credit for it
Lodge tried to delay the passing of the treaty
Wilson decided to tour all fifty states to promote the treaty
Wilson collapses on the tour; his health continues to fail upon returning home
Defeat Through Deadlock
Senator Lodge came up with his fourteen formal reservations to the treaty
Wilson hated Lodge, and likewise hated his reservations
Wilson told all Democrats to obstruct Lodge's reservations
The treaty with reservation failed, but was brought up again in 1920; Wilson again told Democrats to reject it
The Democrats listened to Wilson, and thus led to the death of the treaty in America
The "Solemn Referendum" of 1920
Wilson proposed to settle the treaty issue by a "solemn referendum"
The Old Guard was back in control of the Republican Party; they nominated Warren G. Harding for president and Calvin Coolidge for VP in 1920, and the platform appealed to both pro-League and anti-League sentiments in the party
Democrats nominated James Cox for president and Franklin D. Roosevelt for VP
Democrats attempted to make the campaign a referendum for the League; they were thwarted by Harding who never took a stern stance on the issue
The women's vote helped Harding win
The public was tired of Wilsonism, and was ready to go back to normal
After the election, politicians shunned the League idea; Wilson died in 1924
The Betrayal of Great Expectations
The League of Nations was undercut from the start because the U.S. didn't join
The Treaty of Versailles' collapse is partially America's fault
Congress' refusal to pass the Security Treaty also helped to lead to WWII
The U.S. should have taken a more active role after the war
Full transcript