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World War One
Transcript of World War One
The Outbreaks of War
Marshall Phillipe Petain
:champion in defensive war strategies
David Lloyd George
: British prime minister
: French prime minister
President of the United States
: Leader of the Bolshevik faction
The February Revolution-1917
March 1917 - Nicholas II tries to step down as Czar
October 1917 - Bolsheviks take control over Petrograd and the Winter Palace
Vladamir Lenin is now in control of Russia
Causes of World War I
-The most important battle tactic used during WW1 were the trenches
-Trenches spanned approx. 600 miles of farmland in France and Belgium
-Trenches were made in the soil and were supported by sandbags and planks of wood
-The trenches were hardly the ideal conditions; during the winter they would freeze; during the summer it was extremely hot; rain would cause the mud to become like quicksand
The land between opposing trenches was known as "no man's land" because it was destroyed by artillery shells and was filled with rotting bodies
large influence of military on politics; can lead to an arms race with other countries (Germany vs. Great Britain); becomes an international problem
a political agreement between states to join or support each other for military/political reasons; an entente is an agreement to support your partner in case they are attacked
strong patriotic feeling and pride in one's culture and achievement's; a drive to be unique or distinct
the drive by a state to own as much land and resources to increase their power and conquer other nations
the murder of political/military/social leaders of an opposing side for political reasons; causes fear, conflict and provokes war
Peace and Co-Operation
- As governments increased military spending, some people of wealth spent their own fortunes on projects for peace
- The strength of “peace” came from the bottom of the social pyramid as well.
- Millions of working-class members of Europe’s socialist movements identified the cause of socialism with the cause of peace
- As Europe moved toward war, it was full of illusions about the power of peace
- The strength of peace, some Europeans believed, was that too many had too much to lose in a war
- The results were the Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907, the first meetings nations had ever had on the issue of arms control
- In the end, the peace movements were overwhelmed by the outburst of popular enthusiasm that greeted the coming of war in 1914
- World War I began as a people’s war and at the start, Europeans of all classes were in it together
Battles of WW1
-The Battle of Ypres (along with Somme and Passchendale) are viewed as the 3 most important battles of WW1
-Ypres marked the first time that gas was used during war (the Germans used chlorine gas against the French)
-The French, being unprepared for the gas, were forced to vacate their positions
-Canadian soldiers came to the rescue of the French; they used urine-soaked handkerchiefs as gas masks
-Less than half the soldiers at Ypres survived (6037 casualties)
One great-power rivalry was centred in the West, where France and England had confronted Germany
The other was in the Balkans, where three empires, Russia, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Turkey, struggled for supremacy
In 1908, the Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empires came to the brink of war
Russia, lacking the support of France and Britain and weak after defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, decided not to fight and said that "next time" there would be a war
"Next time" came when Franz Ferdinand and his wife were murdered by a Bosnian revolutionary during a parade.
Within weeks, Europe was in war and on August 4th, Germany invaded Belgium and World War 1 began.
THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
Berlin stayed as an ally with Austria in the older Triple Alliance and let the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia expire
In need of better relations, the British joined France (1904) and Russia (1907) in a loose agreement described as an entente cordiale
This Triple Entente was a friendly understanding, a vow of closer association
Germany was perceived as a nation too big and too powerful for any other nation to face alone
Germany and France appeared on the brink of war in 1905 and again 1911, when the Kaiser threatened to resist French designs on Morocco
The German plan in 1905 was the work of army chief General Alfred von Schlieffen (1833-1913) who designed it to overcome the danger that Germans feared the most – a two-front war against Russia and France
His plan was to beat them one at a time.
Schlieffen thought that Russia, could only move slowly and so could be held off for a time by Austria-Hungary
One of the pivotal events of human history
Began with the revolution of 1905
200 industrial workers killed on Jan. 22, 1905. Known as Bloody Sunday
Czar Nicholas II creates the October Manifesto
Promising civil liberties and an elected parliament, known as the Duma
Reasons for Revolution:
Poverty & Hardship
Unpopular Czarist Autocracy
Collapse of the Army
Two sides to the Revolution:
1. Menshevik - peaceful change & reform.
2. Bolshevik - wanted a revolution
-A French-British offensive led by Sir. Douglas Haig against the Germans was planned to help relieve pressure on the French of Verdun
-The Battle of Somme began with a week-long artillery bombardment against the Germans (approx. 1,700,000 shells were fired)
-The Germans however, were foretold about this attack and were well prepared
-The Battle of Somme ultimately resulted in just over 24,000 casualties
-Austrian leaders certain, without proof, Serbia responsible for the assassination of Austria’s archduke in Sarajevo
-The binding commitment from Germany to back Austria known as the "blank cheque"
-July 23, Berchtold sent Serbia list of 10 harsh demands, Serbia accepted all but 2 that challenged its sovereignty
-Austria declared war on Serbia, July 28 and began bombing capital, Belgrade on 29th
-July 30, Czar Nicholas, of Russia, ordered his army to mobilized for war
-July 31, Germany ordered Russia to halt within 12 hours, Russia did not reply resulting in Germany to declare war
-Britain declared war on Germany condemning German invasion on Belgium as violation of 1839 treaty to respect neutrality of Belgium nation
The Beginning of the War
-Battle of Marne (Sept. 6-9, 1914) = German assault on France stopped 35 miles of Paris
-1 of its armies attempted a manoeuvre resulting in them to veer from the front line= “Marne gap” (opening of German lines) at the Marne River northeast of Paris
-Counteract = French commander-in-chief Marshall Joseph Joffre threw into the opening all the reserves, halting German assault
-German now had to fight 2 front war
-In fall + winter, 2 sides battle back and forth on Russian land= loose line of defence form Eastern front= movement and manoeuvering for most of war
-In West, front = solid
-Fighting in west= Sitzkrieg, sitting war or stalemate in the trenches
-Unlike before, horses did not break through enemy line. Cavalry rode into muzzle of machine guns and rapid-fire artillery= slaughtered immediately
-as many as 6 million soldiers went to war in 1914… number increased to over 65 million before fighting ended in 1918
Political changes effected by World War 1 were reflected best in the decline of the empires.
World War 1 was also the cause for a rise in nationalistic tendencies leading to the demand for independence in many British colonies of outside Europe.
It strained societies through an economic strain that resounded through Europe and the rest of the world. Inflation skyrocketed in many countries.
The burden of reparations drastically affected the German economy.
Social changes included the woman taking over business and establishments. Mechanization and mass production paved the way for labour laws. People chose republic over monarchies and the desire for better standards of living were openly vented.
World War 1 exposed the need for an association of nations – a body to promote international peace and security. The emergence of the League of Nations was a natural corollary to the catastrophic consequences of the Great War.
World War 1 began a period of total war and totalitarian regimes. The war and revolution of 1914-1918,in turn, unleashed more wars and revolutions that would shape the rest of the century.
Communist revolution, Fascist revolution, Revolution in military technology are examples of these changes.
All of these revolutions arose from the death and destruction experienced in World War 1.
Collapse of four empires (German, Austrian, Turkish, and Russian).
As a result of the World War I the trade-union movement started in different countries at a large scale. The labour became actively conscious about their rights.
Trench Warfare (cont'd)
-Troops spent their entire days in the trenches and rarely saw the enemy (except through the scopes of their weapons)
-Troops were unable to change uniforms and were continually filthy
-Troops usually slept during the day and stayed alert during the night
-Troops were provisioned with uniforms, jackets, gloves, shovels, gas masks, rifles and shovels (this could weigh up to 80 lbs in total)
-On July 18th 1917, Sir Douglas Haig launched a heavy artillery barrage on the Germans at a village called Passchendaele, believing their morale was low
-Canadian General Sir Arthur Currie protested against these orders to attack this village but General Haig insisted
-During the Battle at Passchendaele, over 4 million artillery shells were fired
-The battle was not seen as a success because over 300,000 Allied soldiers were killed and only a few miles of land had been gained
-At Passechendaele, 9 Canadian soldiers received the Victoria Cross for their heroic efforts (this is the highest military award for a Canadian)
-One of the most successful battles for the Allies was the Battle of Vimy Ridge
-Led by Sir Arthur Currie and Sir Douglas Haig, the Allies (specifically the Canadians) designed an attack method known as the "creeping barrage"
-This resulted in the capture of the German defensive line at Vimy, which the French and British had previously failed to capture
-Though the attack at Vimy Ridge was seen as successful, it cost the lives of 10,000 Canadian soldiers (there is currently a memorial at present-day Vimy, commemorating Canada's courageous efforts)
-4 Canadians received the Victoria Cross for their efforts at Vimy Ridge
Social Impact of WW1 in Canada
-In Canada, WW1 had brought about strong nationalistic feelings because of the heroic efforts from Canadian soldiers
-There was a sense of nation-wide unity and pride that had never before been seen in Canada
-WW1 also created a division in the country because of what was known as the "Conscription Crisis"
-Canadian Prime Minister Robert Borden created a Bill of Conscription, which forced Canadian citizens to join the war effort (much to the dismay of the French-Canadians)
Social Impact of WW1 in Germany
-The effects of WW1 on Germany was devestating
-Not only did Germany suffer significant casualties, but it also suffered financially
-Having been defeated in the war, Germany was forced by the League of Nations to pay for the debts caused by the war
-This left Germany in a tremendous amount of financial debt throughout the 1920's and early 1930's
-Germany's economic struggles during this time, did allow for Adolf Hitler to rise to power; he would go on to restore the German economy, but became history's most notorious dictator in the process
-The actions of Hitler would directly lead to more worldwide conflict (WW2 from 1939-1945)
By Will Irwin - New York Tribune - April 27 1915
North of France, April 24. -- There is no doubt that the action which has been proceeding about Ypres for a week, and which will probably be known in history as the second battle of Ypres, is the hardest and hottest which has yet developed on the extreme Western front. Indeed, no battle of the war has developed so much action on so concentrated a front. It is the third desperate attempt of the Germans since this war began to break through the combined British and Belgian lines and take the all-important City of Calais.
This series of attacks and counterattacks running along the whole line, developed into that general attack on the British lines with Calais for objective which the Germans probably had been planning ever since matters began to come to a deadlock in the Carpathians. The Germans, making full use of their artillery, launched infantry attacks in their old manner -- close-locked. As formerly, the British and French slaughtered them heavily with machine-gun and rifle fire. Then on Thursday the Germans suddenly threw in that attack its asphyxiating bombs, which will doubtless become famous in this war. It succeeded in breaking the line of French near Bixschoote, although not to such an extent as the Germans claim in today's communique.
The nearest British support was a part of the Canadian contingent. Fighting with desperate bravery, the Canadians succeeded in recovering part of the lost ground. They are still at it today. On a favorable wind the sound of cannonading can be heard as far away as the coast towns.
The nature of the gasses carried by the German asphyxiating shells remain a mystery. Whatever gas it is, it spreads rapidly and remains close to the ground. It is believed not to be specially deadly -- one that rather over powers its victims and puts them hors de combat without killing many. Its effect at Bixschoote may have been due to panic caused by the novelty of the device. Its composition and manner of discharge are probably no mystery to the scientific artillerymen of the Allies. That such devices might be used in war has been known for a long time, but the positive prohibitions of The Hague Conference have prevented the more civilized nations of Europe from going far with experiments in this line.
New York Tribune, April 27, 1915
Boulogne, April 25.-- The gaseous vapor which the Germans used against the French divisions near Ypres last Thursday, contrary to the rules of The Hague Convention, introduces a new element into warfare. The attack of last Thursday evening was preceded by the rising of a cloud of vapor, greenish gray and iridescent. That vapor settled to the ground like a swamp mist and drifted toward the French trenches on a brisk wind. Its effect on the French was a violent nausea and faintness, followed by an utter collapse. It is believed that the Germans, who charged in behind the vapor, met no resistance at all, the French at their front being virtually paralyzed.
Everything indicates long and thorough preparation for this attack. The work of sending out the vapor was done from the advanced German trenches. Men garbed in a dress resembling the harness of a diver and armed with retorts or generators about three feet high and connected with ordinary hose pipe turned the vapor loose towards the French lines. Some witnesses maintain that the Germans sprayed the earth before the trenches with a fluid which, being ignited, sent up the fumes. The German troops, who followed up this advantage with a direct attack, held inspirators in their mouths, thus preventing them from being overcome by the fumes.
In addition to this, the Germans appear to have fired ordinary explosive shells loaded with some chemical which had a paralyzing effect on all the men in the region of the explosion. Some chemical in the composition of those shells produced violent watering of the eyes, so that the men overcome by them were practically blinded for some hours.
The effect of the noxious trench gas seems to be slow in wearing away. The men come out of their nausea in a state of utter collapse. Some of the rescued have already died from the aftereffects. How many of the men left unconscious in the trenches when the French broke died from the fumes it is impossible to say, since those trenches were at once occupied by the Germans.
This new form of attack needs for success a favorable wind. Twice in the day that followed the Germans tried trench vapor on the Canadians, who made on the right of the French position a stand which will probably be remembered as one of the heroic episodes of this war. In both cases the wind was not favorable, and the Canadians managed to stick through it. The noxious, explosive bombs were, however, used continually against the Canadian forces and caused some losses.
Primary Document Analysis
- The article is about the first use of chlorine gas by Germans, against the French and later, the Canadians
- it was very shocking and important "weapon" and strategy that Germany used during the battles
- It was first introduced in World War 1
- People from other civilizations didn't know what this gas was and therefore didn't know how to protect themselves from it
- Introduced during the second Battle of Ypres
- later found out that the gas was chlorine gas
- Gave Germany more power
- German troops held inspirations in their mouths, preventing them from being overcome by the fumes
- Germans fired ordinary explosive shells loaded with some chemical which had a paralyzingly effect on all men in the region of explosion
- some of the rescued soldiers died from the after effects
- Twice, in the day that followed, the Germans tried trench vapor on the Canadians
- Canadians managed to stick through it
- the explosive bombs however were used continually against the Canadian forces and caused some loses as a result
- Gave Germany even more of an advantage making it the stronger civilization during the war
- Severely damaged Frances army
- article was written by an American for an American newspaper who was working towards preparing and giving knowledge to citizens and soldiers for things to be aware of if and when the US joins the war (which they did in 1817)
Primary Document - pages 382-383
1) How does this article contribute to our topic?
2) What knowledge and insight is gained?
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By: Nick, Jasmine, Maja, Justin and Mike
TREATY OF VERSAILLE
Victorious Western Powers imposed a series of harsh peace treaties upon the defeated nations, the Treaty of Versailles being one of the major five.
It was named after the palace outside of Paris where the final document was signed in June 28, 1919.
The so-called Big Four (Britain, France, the United States, and Italy) were key players during the Paris Peace Conference.
Achieved a more moderate view to keep France and Germany in balance (Clemenceau wanted to dismember Germany).
Defeated nations were given no place and no voice at the peace table.
The Versailles Treaty reflected both the toughness and the moderation of the public moods of the Allies.
Terms of the treaty required Germany to compensate for the losses of the Allied nations by conceding territory and paying reparations amounting to 132 billion deutsche marks. Germany also agreed to disarm.