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Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Program

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by

Frances Usuquen

on 28 February 2014

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Transcript of Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Program

Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Program

Anatomy and Physiology
Who are Affected
Breast cancer is more than 100 times more common in women
May occur in Men

According to WHO
breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, claiming the lives of hundreds of thousands of women each year and affecting countries at all levels of modernization
What is Breast Cancer
- is the type of cancer originating from breast tissue
is an x-ray picture of the breast. Screening mammograms are used to check for breast cancer in women who have no signs or symptoms of the disease. Diagnostic mammograms are used to check for breast cancer after a lump or other sign or symptom of the disease has been found.
Philippines has the highest breast cancer rate in Asia.
3 out of 100 Filipino women will have the disease
out of 100 will DIE
Before age 75
Predisposing Factors
Age
The chances of breast cancer increase as one gets older.
Family History
The risk of breast cancer is higher among women who have relatives with the disease.
Personal History
Having been diagnosed with breast cancer in one breast increases the risk of cancer in the other breast or the chance of an additional cancer in the original breast.
Medical Conditions
Women diagnosed with certain benign breast conditions have an increased risk of breast cancer. These include atypical hyperplasia, a condition in which there is abnormal proliferation of breast cells but no cancer has developed.
Lifestyle
Smoking (30-50%)
Lack of physical activity (10%)
Oral contraceptive use ( no established studies)
High-fat diet/Obesity
Chemicals ( polychlorinated biphenyls,  polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,  organic solvents, insecticides)
Alcohol intake
Mammogram
“An ounce of prevention is much BETTER than a pound of cure.”



MAMMOGRAM

a diagnostic procedure

done to determine the size/extent and exact location of a breast lump

lasts for 15 minutes

done at the radiology department

SCHEDULE

20 years old & above
- once every 3 years

40 years old & above
- once every year

CLINICAL
BREAST EXAMINATION

Palpation maneuvers:

Light
Medium
Deep

PRESSURE LEVEL

How to perform BREAST SELF EXAMINATION?



Rachelle
Nancy
Rina
Myla
CJ

MAMMOGRAM

SCHEDULE

40-49 years old
- every year

50 years old & above
- every two years

MAMMOGRAM

CLINICAL
BREAST EXAMINATION

Palpation techniques:

Use the 3 fingers of one hand
Raise one arm at a time

LEFT BREAST
Raise the left arm
use 3 fingers of Right hand to palpate.

RIGHT BREAST
Raise the right arm
use 3 fingers of left hand to palpate

Palpation

How to perform BREAST SELF EXAMINATION?

asymmetry
redness
dimpling
inverted nipples
discharges from nipples

What to look for?

Dimpling /puckering

BREAST ABNORMALITIES

Palpation maneuvers:

Axillary Examination

Wedge

Palpation maneuvers:

Circular
Wedge
Linear

PALPATION MANEUVERS

Use the finger pads

palpate the entire breast using various maneuvers (circular, wedge, vertical)

check the entire breast and armpit area.

How to perform palpation?

Primary Preventive Measures

Secondary Preventive Measures

BREAST CANCER PREVENTION

palpation or examination of the breast including the axillary area by a clinician (nurse or physician)

done to detect the presence of any abnormality (lump)

CLINICAL
BREAST EXAMINATION

Move fingers in small circular and regular movement to cover the entire breast, part by part. Do not lift your fingers from your breast between palpations.

Use the pads
of three middle
fingers

HAND MOVEMENTS

Sitting Position

What are the possible POSITIONS when performing BSE?

Inspection
Palpation

How to perform
BREAST SELF EXAMINATION?

Considerations in Performing BSE


women aged 20 years old and above


With REGULAR MENSTRUATION
> 1 week after menstruation (5-10 days after)

With IRREGULAR
MENSTRUATION/Post MENOPAUSAL
Once every month on the same day of the month


Correct PATTERN/TECHNIQUE
Documentation
Referral


systematic step by step approach in assessing one’s own breasts

it involves looking at and feeling one’s own breast for possible lumps, distortions or swelling

BREAST SELF EXAMINATION

BREAST SELF EXAMINATION

a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer.

it involves looking at and feeling one’s own breast for possible lumps, distortions or swelling.

assessing one’s own breast including the axillary area in order to determine the presence of lumps.

BREAST SELF EXAMINATION

BREAST SELF EXAMINATION

BREAST CANCER PREVENTION

Change in skin color or texture:
redness / eczema

Leaking: dripping, leaking or discharge from a nipple (blood/pus)

BREAST ABNORMALITIES

Pain

Lumps/ bumps / thickening

BREAST ABNORMALITIES

Squeeze Nipples for DISCHARGES

Palpation maneuvers:

Vertical

Palpation maneuvers:

Circular

Palpation maneuvers:

*Most breast cancers :UPPER OUTER area of the breast.

PALPATION PERIMETER

EXAMINATION AREA
the middle of the armpit
just beneath the breast
underside of the breast
middle of the breast bone
moves up and along the collar bone
back to the middle of the armpit







*


Scaling
Peau d’ orange

What to look for?

Lie flat on the back with a pillow or folded towel under the shoulder on the side to be examined
use the opposite hand of the breast to examine

What are the possible POSITIONS when performing BSE?

3

Both arms raised above head
Place hands behind the head and press forward.
Turn side to side an look for changes.

2

Both arms over the waist
Press inward
Turn side to side to note any changes.

Place a pillow under right shoulder and right arm behind the head.
Using the left hand, move the pads of the fingers around the right breast gently in small circular motions covering the entire breast area and armpit.
Use light, medium, and firm pressure.
Squeeze the nipple;
check for discharge and lumps. Repeat these steps for your left breast.

While LYING down

How should Breast
Self Examination be performed?

BSE (Breast Self Examination)
Clinical Breast Examination
Mammogram

Secondary Preventive Measures

BREAST CANCER PREVENTION

Diet
Exercise
Cessation of intake of alcohol
Cessation of smoking

Primary Preventive Measures

BREAST CANCER PREVENTION

Change in skin color or texture: Peau d'orange

BREAST ABNORMALITIES

4

Slightly bend forward with arms over waist:
Place hands at the waist
Bow toward the mirror, letting the breasts fall forward.
Note any change in shape.

What are the possible POSITIONS when performing BSE?

In the SHOWER

How should Breast
Self Examination be performed?

Use the finger pads
move around the entire breast in a circular pattern moving from the outside to the center
check the entire breast and armpit area.
Check both breasts feeling for any lump, thickening, or hardened knot.

Nipple change:
change in the way the nipple is pointing

Nipple change: nipple retraction

BREAST ABNORMALITIES

1

What are the possible POSITIONS when performing BSE?

Both arms
on the sides

In front of the MIRROR

Next, rest palms on the hips and press firmly to flex the chest muscles.
Left and right breasts will not exactly match—few women's breasts do, so look for any dimpling, puckering, or changes, particularly on one side.

How should a Breast
Self Examination be performed?

inspect breasts with arms at the sides.
raise arms high overhead.
Look for any changes in the contour, any swelling, or dimpling of the skin, or changes in the nipples.


Incidence
Most common type of cancer among women
Leading cause of death in women between 35-54 years old
More common among females than males (for every 100 women with breast cancer, 1 male will develop the disease)
Incidence is very low in ages 20s ; gradually increases at age 45; increases dramatically after 50
Standing
B
R
E
A
S
T
leeding tendencies / discharges
everted/inverted nipples
levated mass/lump
symmetry
welling
enderness/pain
Full transcript