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Inevitable Loss: The Stages of Colonization

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Nora Scott

on 9 November 2015

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Transcript of Inevitable Loss: The Stages of Colonization

Stage One - Cultural Transition (Associated with Physical, Environmental and Economic Impacts)
Physical sharing of land and resources
Introduction of infectious diseases
Rapid decline in population begins
Some villages are completed decimated
Similar experience in Medieval Europe after pandemics
Aboriginal populations didn't have enough time to recover emotionally or to re-construct/re-populate themselves
Post-traumatic stress syndrome begins
Forced Removal of Indigenous People from their natural living areas and life ways
hunting/gathering/trapping/fishing patterns change
diet changes
production modes move from low consumption level for a sharing-based exchange to production for profit and market based exchange with a high consumption level
Indigenous culture is seen as inferior but some partnership is still necessary for survival (ie food and clothing)
The Stages of Colonization and historic trauma
Stage Two - Cultural Dispossession (Associated with Cultural and Social Impacts))
wave of Christian missionaries intended to bring about religious transformation and cultural destruction
forced removal from traditional lands through treaties and war
colonial settlement introduces individualized concepts of land ownership
Foreign education which demotes traditional Indigenous Knowledge and forces views of colonizer
colonial laws are introduced and enforced
Indigenous culture(s) are seen as inferior and that of colonial power as superior
Introduction of alien social structures and non-traditional coping mechanisms
IK is generally silenced thus family and gender roles are damaged and cultural values are diminished
Stage Three - Cultural Oppression (Associated with Psychological Impact)
full prohibition of traditional Indigenous cultural practices
assault on language
economic power is controlled and governed by colonial power
political power is controlled (in the form of colonial government) or removed
Any perception of control over their lives becomes reduced and badly undermined
Colonizers have full control and Indigenous people are marginalized
Social selves are largely impoverished
Three stages of colonization
(AHF, 2004)
outcomes of Colonization
Historic Trauma
Learned helplessness
Faced with inescapable conditions, such as physical extermination, cultural genocide and colonial subjugation, individuals and groups often exhibit this.
LH occurs when an individual perceives that his/her behavior cannot control events and that no action on his or her part will control future outcomes.
Most importantly, should traumatic experience endure over time (400 years of epidemics, cultural attacks, residential school. war, dispossession of land) and is applicable across settings (physical, economical, cultural social psychological) then the failure in the present creates generalized expectations for failure in the future
LH affects motivation, cognition and emotion
HT is recognized as a cluster of traumatic events and as a casual factor operating in many different areas of impact; not a disease itself
Hidden collective memories of this trauma, or a collective non-remembering, is passed from generation to generation
HT causes many different social disorders whose symptoms are often sexual abuse, suicide, domestic violence, interpersonal maladjustment
HT be passed through generations in the form of socially learned behaviours (family violence, sexual abuse)
health problems
marginalization - pushed to outskirts of society
lack of economic independence
loss of culture and language
psychological and emotional issues passed on through generations
physical, sexual and verbal abuse
Native Studies
As you watch the video clips, write down words that describe the events taking place. How are Indigenous people's lives affected and by what acts?
Full transcript