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The Perfect Tenses in English for ESL classes

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ESL prezi

on 23 February 2016

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Transcript of The Perfect Tenses in English for ESL classes

We use the
Present Perfect
to say that an action began in the past and has some effect on the present.
We use the
Past Perfect
tense in English to show that something happened before something else in the past.

English before you moved to New York?

• You
had spoken
English before you moved to New York.

• You
had not studied
English before you moved to New York.

Future Perfect
is a verb form or construction used to describe an event that is expected or planned to happen before another time in the future.
The Perfect Tenses
Present Perfect
Past Perfect
Future Perfect
We CANNOT use the Present Perfect these time expressions:
We CAN use the Present Perfect with these time expressions:
ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet
I have I've
You have You've

He has He´s
She has She´s
It has It´s
John has John´s
The car has The car's

We have We've
They have They've
Positive Sentences
Negative Sentences
When speaking with the past perfect tense, we often contract the subject and auxiliary verb:

I had I'd

you had you'd

he had he´d
she had she´d
it had it'd

we had we'd
they had they'd
you had you´d
Affirmative Sentences
Negative Sentences
Interrogative Sentences
Regular Verbs
had closed
the window before the storm stared.

had travelled
to Europe.

had been married
for 5 years before they divorced.
Irregular Verbs
I lost so much weight because I
had begun

They were in shock because they
had never thought
about it before.

You said you
had bought
this dress in the mall.

He had written
a letter to María.

Mr. Baker
had built
airports around the world.

The servant
had found
the book.
Subject + auxiliary verbs hadn’t + past participle + rest of the
(had not) verb sentence
I had not eaten at that
before today.

Samantha hadn’t had time to explain her
side of the story.

My friends hadn’t ever gone to France.

My friends had never gone to the USA.
Subject + auxiliary verb had + past participle + rest of the
verb sentence
Sophie had finished her work before
she went to lunch.

The painter had painted the house.

Harold had known about it for
a while.

I had had enough of his

It had happened so quickly, I
didn’t notice.
Auxiliary Verb + Subject + Verb in Past + Rest of the
Participle + Sentence
Had you cleaned up the mess
by the time
they came

Had Adam ever spoken
to the CEO
before he
was fired?
Tag Questions
Wh-Word + Auxiliary + Subject + +Verb in Past + Rest of
Verb Participle Sentence
What had they said that made
him so

Why had he agreed to work
for that

How much had he drunk before you
got to him?
They’re formed by writing a regular sentence in the past perfect simple, then by adding hadn’t and a pronoun (I, you, we, they, he, she, it) and a question mark.
had known
about the cancer for a couple of years,
hadn’t he

had been
in business together,
hadn’t they

Jennifer h
adn’t spoken
to you about it,
had she

had never eaten
a proper Indian meal,
had they

Completed Action Before Something in the Past
• I
had never
seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.

• I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.

• Tony knew Istanbul so well because he
had visited
the city several times.

ever studied
Thai before she moved to Thailand?
Duration Before Something in the Past
• We
had had
that car for ten years before it broke down.

• By the time Alex finished his studies, he
had been
in London for over eight years.

• They felt bad about selling the house because they
had owned
it for more than forty years.

'Just' is used with the past perfect to refer to an event that was only a short time earlier than before now, e.g.

The train
had just left
when I arrived at the station.

• She
had just left
the room when the police arrived.

• I
had just put
the washing out when it started to rain.
Past Perfect + Just
Grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

had previously studied
English before you moved to New York.

previously studied
English before you moved to New York?
Adverb Placement
Wh-Questions in the Present Perfect Simple
When have I ever lied to you?

Why has Tanya left the country?

How much money have you spent so far?

will have finished in the English sentence

"I will have finished by tomorrow."

It is a grammatical combination of the future tense, or other marking of future time, and the perfect, a grammatical aspect that views an event as prior and completed.
In English, the future perfect construction consists of the auxiliary verb will (or shall; see shall and will) to mark the future, the auxiliary verb have to mark the perfect, and the past participle of the main verb (the second component of the English perfect construction).
will have fallen
asleep by the time we get home.

shall have gone
by then.

have finished
when I get back?
The English future perfect places the action relative only to the absolute future reference point, without specifying the location in time relative to the present.

In most cases the action will be in the future relative to the present, but this is not necessarily the case:

For example
"If it rains tomorrow, we will have worked in vain yesterday.”
The future perfect construction with will (like other constructions with that auxiliary) is sometimes used to refer to a confidently assumed present situation rather than a future situation, as in:

"He will have woken up by now."
FORM Future Perfect with "Be Going To"
am/is/are + going to have + past participle

You are going to have perfected  your English
by the time you
come back from
the U.S.

Are you  going to have perfected  your English
by the time you
come back from
the U.S.?

You are not going to have perfected  your English
by the time you
come back from
the U.S.

NOTE: It is possible to use either "will" or "be going to"
to create the Future Perfect with little or no
difference in meaning.








Look at these example sentences in the future perfect tense:
In speaking with the future perfect tense, we often contract the subject and will. Sometimes, we contract the subject, will and have all together:
How do we use the Future Perfect Tense?
The future perfect tense expresses action in the future before another action in the future. This is the past in the future. For example:

The train will leave the station at 9am. You will arrive at the station at 9.15am. When you arrive, the train will have left.
Look at some more examples:
You can call me at work at 8am. I will have arrived at the office by 8.

They will be tired when they arrive. They will not have slept for a long time.

"Mary won't be at home when you arrive.""Really? Where will she have gone?"
You can sometimes think of the future perfect tense like the present perfect tense, but instead of your viewpoint being in the present, it is in the future:
yesterday, one year ago, last week, at that moment, that day, one day, etc.
for these we use the Past Simple
Have you ever met an alien?
No, I´ve never
met an alien.
men have stood on the moon so far.
No one has been to Mars yet.
Full transcript