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Parental Drug & Alcohol Use

CEP 215, Group Presentation
by

Courtney Valenzuela

on 18 April 2013

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Transcript of Parental Drug & Alcohol Use

Introduction Prenatal
Exposure to Alcohol Impact of Child Development Impact of Child Development (Con't.) Screening & Assessment Prenatal Exposure to Drugs Presented by: Brenda Salas Parental Drug and Alcohol Use Presented by: Sydney Orrill Presented by: Kimmee Yates Presented by: Courtney Valenzuela Types of Substance Use Statistics An estimated 19.9 million Americans, or 8% of the population aged 12 or older, were current illicit drug users in 2007 (Marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, and inhalants and the non-medical use of prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives).

In 2007, approximately 6.9 million people aged 12 or older (2.8% of the population) were current users of prescription-type psychotherapeutic drugs taken non-medically.

An estimated 22.3 million Americans aged 12 or older in 2006 (9% of the population) were classified with substance abuse or dependence. Statistics (Con't.) Among pregnant women aged 15 to 44, an estimated 11.6% reported current alcohol use, and 3.7% reported binge drinking.

37% of children (27 million) live with a parent or other adult who smokes or chews tobacco.

Nearly 24% (17 million) live with a parent or other adult who drinks heavily or binge drinks.

About 13% (9.2 million) live with a parent or other adult who uses illegal drugs. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol (Con't.) Effects That Marijuana Has While Pregnant Using Marijuana can increase carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the blood, which causes higher chances of a miscarriage. The child can also be born with learning and behavior problems and developmental delays. "Crack Babies" cocaine goes through the placenta and into the fetus. The elimination of the cocaine is slower in the child than it would be in an adult so it stays there longer.

The causes of cocaine use while pregnant are worse than any other drug. Cocaine increases the chance of having a miscarriage, "Placental abruption", and there is a high change that if the mother uses cocaine frequently while pregnant the child can have a small head and will not grow as much. If the mother is using Heroin while pregnant the child can become addicted to the drug before they are even born. When the child is born they can have withdrawal symptoms that can be deadly. What Methamphetamine Causes Methamphetamine increases the mother's heart rate as well as the baby's. The effects it has on the child is the same as if the mother would be using Cocaine. Bonding (Con't.) Children who experience either prenatal or postnatal drug exposure are at risk for a range of emotional, academic, and developmental problems. For example, they are more likely to:

-Experience symptoms of depression and anxiety.
-Suffer from psychiatric disorders.
-Exhibit behavioral problems.
-Score lower on school achievement tests.
-Demonstrate other difficulties in school. Disruption of the Bonding Process When mothers or fathers abuse substances after the birth of a child, their ability to bond with their child may be weakened. In order for an attachment to form, it is necessary that caregivers pay attention to and notice their children's attempts to communicate. Parents who use marijuana, for example, may have difficulty picking up their babies' cues because marijuana dulls response time and alters perceptions. When parents repeatedly miss their babies' cues, the babies eventually stop providing them. The result is disengaged parents with disengaged babies. These parents and babies then have difficulty forming a healthy, appropriate relationships. Bonding (Con't.) Neglected children who are unable to form secure attachments with their primary caregivers may:

-Become more mistrustful of others and may be less willing to learn from adults.
-Have difficulty understanding the emotions of others, regulating their own emotions, or forming and maintaining relationships with others.
-Have a limited ability to feel remorse or empathy, which may mean that they could hurt others without feeling their actions were wrong.
-Demonstrate a lack of confidence or social skills that could hinder them from being successful in school, work, and relationships.
-Demonstrate impaired social cognition, which is awareness of oneself in relation to others, as well as others' emotions. Impaired social cognition can lead a person to view many social interactions as stressful. Parentification: What is it? As children grow older, they may become increasingly aware that their parents cannot care for them. To compensate, the children become the caregivers of the family, often extending their caregiving behavior to their parents, as well as, younger siblings. This process is referred to as, "parentification." The Road to Parentification What About Their Children? Children who have parents that abuse substances (alcohol, drugs, etc.) often times blame themselves for their parents' "bad habits" rather than the parents' themselves. For example: They relate their parents' substance abuse to them fighting with a sibling ("Mom drinks alcohol, because my sister and I fight a lot.") So they may try to "control" their parents' substance abuse by, in this case, getting along with a sibling; modifying their behavior to please their parents. This delusion the child has is not usually the case, and the behavior varies among children. Some children may simply withdraw, in the hopes of not creating any type of disturbance that would then cause the parent(s) to drink or any other type of substance abuse. Very few children realize they cannot cause a parent to abuse substances or that they cannot cure/"heal" a parent's substance problem. In-home Examination Screening

U Have you spent more time drinking or Using than you intended?

N Have you ever Neglected some of your usual responsibilities because of alcohol or drug use?

C Have you ever felt you wanted or needed to Cut down on your drinking or drug use in the past year?

O Has your family, a friend, or anyone else ever told you they Objected to your alcohol or drug use?

P Have you found yourself thinking a lot about drinking or using? (Preoccupied)

E Have you ever used alcohol or drugs to relieve Emotional discomfort, such as sadness, anger, or boredom?

Scoring: Two or more positive responses indicate possible abuse or dependence and a need for further assessment by an SUD treatment provider. What Happens Next? Once assessment is reached the CPS case worker and the SUD treatment provider will reach an agreement on what steps need to be taken.

The child who is a victim of neglect or abuse will typically be sent to a foster care home where they are provided services. During that time, the child's relatives are investigated to see if they could care for the child in a kinship foster care.

The parent will have to face charges of child neglect and will start the process of detoxification. Common Treatment Approaches - Cognitive-Behavioral Approach
- Motivational Enhancement Treatment
- Therapeutic Community
- Trauma Informed Treatment
- Trauma Specific Treatment

The goal is to provide a safe withdrawal from the substance of dependence and enable individuals to become alcohol- or drug-free. Numerous risks are associated with withdrawal, ranging from physical discomfort and emotional distress to death. The specific risks are affected by the substance on which the individual is dependent. Treatment of the Child “…the effects of substance misuse on a family is probably complex and varied… it is necessary… to understand the substance abuse in the context of the individual family and its impact on the child care experienced by the child.” (Kroll, Taylor, Sloan, 1998, p.39)

Risks:
-Syringes, bottles, needles.
-Losing parents and home due to detoxification, jail, or rehabilitation.
-Risk of developing their own addiction.
-Lack of self-confidence and problem solving.
-Lack of attachment styles, which could lead to anxiety and unresolved distress.

Helping these children will have a significant impact on their lives and give them a sense of hope. References Locke, Thomas F. & Newcomb, Michael D. (2004). Child Maltreatment, Parent Alcohol and Drug Related Problems, and Parenting Practices: A Test of Gender Differences and Four Theoretical Perspectives. Journal of Family Psychology, 18(1). 120-134. Substance Use - Low dose of alcohol or drugs that rarely has damaging consequences. For instance, drinking in a way that has no negative outcomes or violence. Taking the right amount of prescribed drugs or over-the-counter medication to only alleviate pain.

Substance Abuse - Pattern of substance use that leads to impairment or distress. Examples would be continuing even when it is a physical hazard (driving under the influence), failure to maintain a role or obligation at work, school, or at home, trouble with the law.

Substance Dependence/Addiction - Progressive need for drugs or alcohol. Biological and Physical changes. Increase in tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and behavioral changes. Stages of Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol
0: No prenatal exposure to alcohol, no damage to fetus.
1: Higher levels of anxiety and depression.
2: Lowered academic, social and emotional intelligence, lower reading and math skills and increased social behavior indicator, including ADHD and ADD.
3: Brain damage, including clearly identified reading and math deficits, abnormal behaviors, and emotional immaturity, which result in academic failure, psychological diagnoses, low regulation of emotions, and sexual behaviors, criminal behaviors, and/or depression. 4: Physical manifestation and academic and social brain damage behaviors, with increasingly lower levels of each. The physical manifestations could include facial anomalies, skeletal anomalies, and damage to the eyes, ears, heart, lungs, sternum, arms, fingers, legs, toes, genitals, rectum, and other organs of the body.
5: Miscarriage, death of the fetus, stillborn, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, or death due to damage to organs of the body from prenatal exposure to alcohol. Presented by: Natalie Martinez C Have you ever felt the need to Cut down on your drinking or drug use?

A Have you ever felt Annoyed by people criticizing your drinking or drug use?

G Have you ever felt bad or Guilty about your drinking or drug use?

E Have you ever had a drink or used a drug first thing in the morning to steady your nerves or get rid of a hangover? (Eye-opener) Scoring: If the answer is "yes" to one or more questions, the responder should receive a formal alcohol and drug assessment. Answering "yes" to one or two questions may indicate alcohol and drug-related problems. Answering "yes" to three or four questions may indicate alcohol or drug dependence. Experiencing Child Maltreatment:
-Sexual Abuse
-Family Abuse
-Family Neglect

OR

Parent Alcohol/Drug Related Problems:
-Parent Consequences
-Child Consequences
-Parental Aggression ... Can Lead to... Parenting Problems:
-Warmth
-Aggression
-Undifferentiated Rejection
-Indifferent Neglect Personal Substance Use:
-Alcohol
-Marijuana
-Cocaine
-Amphetamines
-Prescription
-Etc. ... WHICH, Can Affect... Locke, Thomas F. & Newcomb, Michael D. (2004). The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress, 2006. The American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress. (2006). Effects of Parental Substance Abuse on Children and Families. Capaldi, Lindsey. (2008). The Relationship Between Parental Substance Abuse and the Effects on Young Children. Social Work Thesis, Paper 14. Kroll, Brynna & Taylor, Andy. (2000). Invisible Children? Parental Substance Abuse and Child Protection: Dilemmas for Practice. Probation Journal, 47. 91-100. Office on Child Abuse and Neglect, Children's Bureau., ICF International. (2009). Protecting Children in Families Affected by Substance Use Disorders. How Parental Substance Use Disorders Affect Children. Child Welfare Information Gateway. Web. 03 Apr. 2013. <https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/usermanuals/substanceuse/chapterthree.cfm> Group #5 How Heroin Can Harm Your Unborn Child Statistics h CDC studies have shown that 0.2 to 1.5 cases of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) occur for every 1,000 live births in certain areas of the United States.
7.6% of pregnant women (or 1 in 13) report drinking alcohol.
Among pregnant women, the highest estimates of reported alcohol use were among those who were:
-Aged 35-44 years (14.3%)
-College graduates (10.0%) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition that results from alcohol exposure during pregnancy. Problems that may be caused by FAS include physical deformities, mental retardation, learning disorders, vision difficulties, and behavioral problems.

Every year in the United States, as many as 2,000 to 12,000 babies are born with FAS. As many as 10 times that number are born with what doctors call fetal alcohol exposure, a less-severe condition. FAS occurs in 40% of women who are alcoholics or chronic alcohol abusers. Fetal alcohol exposure can occur in the children of women who drink moderately or lightly during pregnancy.

FAS is one of the most common known causes of mental retardation, and it's the only one that is entirely preventable!
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