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Module 2: Comparison of Cognitive, Behavioural and Social Theories
Transcript of Module 2: Comparison of Cognitive, Behavioural and Social Theories
Melissa Careri Lev Vygotsky Social Development Theory Social interaction plays a fundamental role in the process of cognitive development. He felt that social learning precedes development. "Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level".
The "More Knowledgeable Other" (MKO) refers to anyone who has a better understanding on a higher level than the learner with respect to a particular task, process, or concept.
The "Zone of Proximal Development" (ZPD) is the distance between a students ability to perform a task under adult guidance and.or with peer collaboration and the student's ability to solve the problem independently.
Vygotsky's theory is one of the foundations of constructivism Major Themes The theory promotes learning contexts in which students play an active role in learning.
Roles of the teacher and student are shifted, as a teacher should collaborate with their students in order to help facilitate meaning construction in students. Learning is both from students and teachers.
Instructional Strategies The theory argues that social interaction precedes development
Consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behaviour.
The focus is on the connections between people and the sociocultural context in which they act and interact in shared experiences.
Humans use tools developed from a culture to mediate social environments (example: speech and writing).
Internalization of these tools lead to higher thinking skills. In order for this to work in the classroom setting, the environment must be a welcoming and safe one for all learners.
Classroom Environment Jean Piaget Stage Theory of Cognitive Development Cognitive development is four stages in children (sensormotor, preoperational, concrete, formal). He came to these conclusions through observing his children making sense of the world The stages cover a child's development from birth to the age of fifteen The model is of how the mind processes new information encountered Sensorimotor Stage (Birth- Two Years Old): The infant builds an understanding of itself and reality through interactions with the environment. Also able to differentiate between itself and other objects. Major Themes Preoperational Stage (Two-Four Years Old): The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations. Objects are classified in simple ways. Concrete Operations (Seven-Eleven Years Old): As physical experience accumulates, accommodation is increased. The child begins to think abstractly and conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain their physical experiences. Formal Operations (Eleven-Fifteen Years Old): The person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgements. They are capable of deductive and hypothetical reasoning. Abstract thinking is similar to that of an adult. Instructional Strategies Classroom Environment Stages of Development Erik Erickson His theory of development considers the impact of external factors, parents and society on personality development from childhood to adulthood.
Every person must pass through a series of eight interrelated stages over the entire life cycle.
He explored the three aspects of identity: the ego, personal and social/cultural.
Each stage is sorted by age and different feelings Eight Interrelated Stages: Major Themes Infancy (Birth to Eighteen Months): Basic Trust vs Mistrust - Hope
The child will develop optimism, trust, confidence and security if properly cared for and handled. Toddler/Early Childhood (Eighteen Months - Three Years): Autonomy vs Shame- Will
The child has the opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as they learn new skills and right from wrong. Children tend to be vulnerable during this stage, sometimes feeling shame and low self-esteem during an inability to learn certain skills. Preschooler (Three to Five Years): Initiative vs Guilt - Purpose
Children have a desire to copy adults around them in creating play situations (Barbie's and Ken dolls). They also ask a lot of "why" questions School Age Child (Six to Twelve Years)Industry vs Inferiority - Competence
Children are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge, developing a sense of industry. It is also a very social stage of development. Adolescent (Twelve to Eighteen Years): Identity vs Role Confusion - Fidelity
Development now depends on what a person does, not what is done to them. They struggle to discover and find their own identity while struggling with social interactions and "fitting in". Young Adult (Eighteen to Thirty Five): Intimacy and Solidarity vs Isolation - Love
People tend to seek companions and love. They begin to "settle down" although it is starting later in more recent years. Middle- Aged Adult (Thirty Five to Sixty Five): Generativity vs Self Absorption or Stagnation - Care
Career and work are the most important things at this stage along with family. Many people struggle with finding purpose. Late Adult (Sixty Five Years - Death):
This stage involves reflection. Some look back with a sense of integrity while others may be more focused on their failures and fear of death. Instructional Strategies An idea for framing teaching around this theory is to highlight the issues the child may be struggling with during the stage they are in. Classroom Environment In order to be able to share in this matter, the classroom needs to be welcoming and safe (as stated in prior slides). Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs A motivational theory in psychology that argues that while people aim to meet basic needs they seek to meet successively higher needs in the form of a hierarchy. Believes that human actions are directed toward goal attainment. It is presented in a pyramid with five levels. The four levels (lower-order needs) are considered physiological needs while the top level is a growth need. Any given behaviour could satisfy several functions at the same time Major Ideas There are FIVE parts to the heirarchy theory, listed from the last to the first: Physiological: includes air, food, water, sex, sleep and other factors towards homeostasis
Safety: includes security of environment, employment, resources, health and property
Belongingness: includes love, friendship, intimacy and family
Esteem: includes confidence, self-esteem, achievement, and respect
Self-Actualization: morality, creativity, and problem solving Instructional Strategies In order to teach with this in mind, one would have to understand each level and its importance to our needs. Classroom Environment Making themes "real" in the classroom environment would help create a comfortable learning space. For instance, when bringing themes of esteem and belongingness into the classroom, the teacher could demonstrate it through personal experience or show students physical examples so they know and understand that it does exist in more than just a textbook. Howard Gardner The theory states that there is seven ways to understand in the world.
Some argue that this theory is based too much on his own intuition rather than empirical data.
Others feel that the intelligences are synonymous for personality types
These intelligences may not be exhaustive Multiple Intelligences Major Themes The following are seven ways in which people understand in the world: Linguistic: The ability to use spoken or written words
Logical - Mathematical: Inductive and deductive thinking and reasoning abilities, logic, as well as the use of numbers and abstract pattern recognition
Visual-Spatial: The ability to mentally visualize objects and spatial dimensions
Body-Kinesthetic: The wisdom of the body and the ability to control physical motion
Musical-Rhythmic: The ability to master music as well as rhythms, tones and beats
Interpersonal: The ability to communicate effectively with other people and to be able to develop relationships
Intrapersonal: The ability to understand one's own emotions, motivations, inner states of being, and self- reflection. Instructional Strategies Verbal-lingusitic and logical-mathematical intelligences are the ones most frequently used in traditional school curricula.
A more balanced curriculum that incorporates the arts, self-awareness, communication, and physical education may be useful in order to leverage the intelligences that some students may have. Classroom Environment In this environment, students would need to have all of the materials required for meeting different learning needs. Teachers would have to try to incorporate different tools to teach concepts and to have them accessible to the students. Albert Bandura Social Learning Theory In this theory, people learn from one another via observation, imitation and modeling.
This theory has often been called a bridge between behaviourist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.
People learn through observing other's behaviour, attitudes and outcomes of those behaviours.
Social learning theory explains human behaviour in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioural and environmental influences. Major Themes According to the theory, there are four necessary conditions for effective modeling: Attention: various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. Includes distinctiveness, affective valence, prevalence, complexity, functional value.
Retention: remembering what you paid attention to. Includes mental images, cognitive organization, symbolic rehearsal and motor rehearsal.
Reproduction: reproducing the image. Including physical capabilities, and self-observation of reproduction
Motivation: Having a good reason to imitate. Includes motives such as past (traditional behaviourism) promised (imagined incentives) and vicarious (seeing and recalling the reinforced model). In knowing that students are constantly modeling adults, we need to follow the theories' four steps to make what we are modeling effective. Classroom Environment Instructional Strategy www. learning-theories. com
Tribes Learning Communities Works Cited Example of a student centered classroom: using Tribes activities to guide student learning
- Interview Circle: ask the class to sit in a circle and the student being interviewed sits in the middle. The student can assume an identity for it to bring life to a story as well.
Activities where students take the lead and guide their own learning through facilitation is what the theory calls for. To start creating this type of environment, Tribes suggests setting up a community circle for the students. This way, they can share stories and experiences in a group setting and get to know each other slowly in a comfortable way. With activities like this, students will start to see that it is okay to share with one another and be able to work with one another.
Students also need to be comfortable with the teacher. In order for this to happen, the teacher needs to be willing to share and be open with the students as well. This way, they can feel comfortable approaching them with any questions or areas of concern. To teach with this theory in mind, you would have to consider the appropriate age group and create an understanding of what stage of understanding they are in. An example would be for a child in the preoperational stage. They would still need to have concrete physical situations to help them understand a concept or idea. For something like storytelling, having visuals or acting out a book will help them understand what has happened in the story better instead of simply reading straight from the text. The classroom needs to have all the tools for the students to learn with according to their age of learning in the theory.
The teacher needs to keep in mind where they are mentally in their learning and understanding in order to teach new concepts and ideas. Teachers need to also be open to teaching various concepts in a number of different ways to assist the students. They need to feel comfortable in approaching the teacher to get the extra help when needed. For instance, if you were teaching children in the "School Age Child" stage, there is a lot of issues surrounding self esteem and feelings of inferiority. Teaching directly on these issues in literacy or drama is one way of educating and putting their minds at ease. This could be done through reading a book.
Another way this could be done is through the tribes "Jigsaw" activity. Groups of students can learn about a different issue and then present it to the rest of the class in whichever way they feel comfortable. This would then make the issue an open one and allow students to feel comfortable to talk about it when needed. In addition to the safe environment, students need to feel confident in their ability to work in a team. If they do not feel comfortable with one another, this will be difficult to achieve. Having students work on presentations is important because it builds on their confidence and abilities to work in a team setting. To reach self-actualization, the other four levels need to be reached. Teachers then need to ensure these levels are achieved before they can get to the problem solving. Teacher needs to incorporate themes of belonging and esteem in their lessons. The physiological and safety should always be part of the environment and does not necessarily have to be constantly "taught" to the students. As stated prior, the classroom would have to have a safe, inclusive learning environment so that students are always comfortable in sharing their thoughts and opinions on the issues. For example, when teaching math, teachers should use manipulatives, graphs, anchor charts and other visuals to speak to all types of learners, rather than having strictly equations and math sheets to explain problems and explain concepts. For example, explaining how to retain things for a test is one way of assisting a student. Teaching the students how to study and memorize is important as studying is not a skill everyone just "knows". Examples of the different conditions for effective modeling in the classroom is beneficial for students. For example, if the students were taught how to study for a test, an anchor chart should be posted on the wall with the various steps.