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Non-Western Perspectives of Adult Learning
Transcript of Non-Western Perspectives of Adult Learning
Non-Western Perspectives most of current knowledge base is shaped in a Western paradigm Maori Concepts of Learning & Knowledge Learning is lifelong Adult Learning from an Islamic Perspective Islam is a comprehensive way of life, paying special attention to education & knowledge seeking. African Indigenous Education major principle is to learn to live usefully and happily with one's family, with one's community, with one's society, and with the spirits of one's ancestors Non-Western Perceptions of Adult Learning assumption that mind & body are split, leading to an emphasis on cognition curriculum is primarily Western looking at other systems can enlarge our understanding of adult learning constant symbolic relationship with the world around us to learn from the myriad of situations we encounter throughout our lives Adult learning process involves commitment, continuous effort, and a holistic approach Eight steps to follow to reach the highest excellence:
1. investigation of things
2. extension of knowledge
3. sincerity of will
4. rectification of mind
5. cultivation of one's personal life
6. regulation of the family
7. national order
8. world peace Purpose of adult learning is to enlighten the people, to love the people, and to rest in "the highest excellence." Adult learning is NOT focused on vocational or skill acquirement - instead it is focused on spiritual development Relationship between teacher and student is not equal as it is in the west; the teacher is respected, and learners are asked to obey their teachers. combines both cognition and spirituality to create individuals who view learning and the development of knowledge not merely as skills and fact acquisition but as a means to becoming unified human beings views the relationship between guru (teacher) & student as sacred & revered core underpinnings of Hinduism passed down orally from generation to generation self-discovery as a stepping stone to enlightenment life for a Hindu is not about acquisition of knowledge but about developing wisdom through understanding the self focus on forming a unity with the world at large "Ako," the Maori word for learning, entails historical & cultural dimensions ... and is also the word for teaching Knowledge is a collective entity Extended families serve as a fundamental unit for living and learning As Maori have been excluded from much of government funded education, they have established their own sites of learning under their own control. Knowledge is defined and constructed by Maori law for Maori and learned in culturally appropriate ways. Learning is sacred & obligatory for an individual as well as for the community. Purpose of education is to bring humankind closer to God and His creation. emphasis on communal learning obligation recognizes both learning & teaching are equally important Learning is lifelong Values informality, collective learning, oral modes of instruction, & acquisition of revealed knowledge through dreams and visions Education helps groups of people reach highest level of important societal values Individual then becomes part of an empowered group of people who are honest, accommodating, sharing, committed to saving lives at all costs, and respecting of the young and the old Modern education devalues all of this Common themes emphasis on INTERDEPENDENCE instead of independence in learning Identity, self-concept, and self-esteem are developed and enhanced only in relation to others Interdependence is linked to the communal nature of learning in non-Western systems, rather than the more isolated Western teaching-learning transaction Emphasizes a holistic approach that includes spirit, mind, body, and emotional components rather than the Western focus on the cognitive Learning is primarily informal, embedded in everyday life, and lifelong.