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Psychology ABC Book

Hannah Ohrstrom; Period 5

Hannah Ohrstrom

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Psychology ABC Book

AP Psychology
ABC Book Hannah Ohrstrom
Period 5 A Antagonist... A substance that inhibits a synapse from a specific neurotransmitter. An example of an
antagonist is Histamine. Histamines
inhibit certain receptors during a
time of pain in order to smooth
the blood vessels making it easier
to cope with the pain. Agonist... A substance that initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor. Morphine is an agonist. It mimics endorphines through opioid
receptors throughout the Central
Nervous System causing a calming sensation. Acetylcholine... A neurotransmitter associated with voluntary movement, sleep and
wakefulness. Acetylcholine is
often the victim of many
medicines. Antagonists such
as nicotine are often used to
block the effects of this neuro-
transmitter. Ames Room... The Ames Room is a room that only looks normal from a certain point because the room is
distorted so it is an optical illusion. The room appears box like, often from a photo. But as soon as you move away, you see that one corner of the room is much further away than the other. Absolute Threshold... The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50
percent of the time. For example,
your absolute threshold of being
able to see a candle lit on a clear
night might be 500 yards but
another person may say 300 yards. All or None Law... Either a neuron completely fires or it does not fire at all. This is important in perception. If a neuron does not fire, then the person is not perceiving that stimulus. This is called the Absolute Threshold. When a neuron does fire, the person will perceive the stimulus. For example: A person does not kind of see the candle far away. They either see it or they do not. B Brocas Area... Controls language expression-- an area, usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech. If someone sustains damage to their Brocas Area, they will hear a question and understand it, and even know the answer to it. However, they cannot produce meaningful speech to answer the question. Brainstem... The oldest part of the central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic
survival functions. Severe injuries to the brainstem are much of the same symptoms as a concussion. However, untreated brainstem injury results in: blindness, paralysis of face and neck, loss of hearing, depression, other brain diseases, and infections. Basal Ganglia... A group of structures linked to the thalamus in the base of the brain and involved in coordination of movement. Other diseases such as Parkinson's or Huntington's diseases are linked to basal ganglia dysfunction. Behavior Geneticists... The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and
environmental influences of behavior. A popular study done by these doctors is the "Twin Study". Which is done by observing twins who where adopted by different families to see if their personalities changed because of their upbringing (environment). Barbiturates... Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement. These drugs are often used as sedatives or anesthetics in the medical field but these drugs are highly addictive which is why they are often abused. Behaviorism... The school of psychology founded on the premise that behavior is measurable and can be changed through the application of various behavioral principles. In class, we learned about Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Observable Learning and the case of Little Albert. All of these ideas fall under the category of Behaviorism experiments and theories. C Case Study... An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. A case study may be done on Albert Einstein to determine if his lifestyle or upbringing had anything to do with his abilities. Correlation... A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. For Example: There is a strong correlation between smoking and lung cancer. However, we cannot jump to the conclusion that smoking causes lung cancer because of the idea of correlation without causation. Central Nervous System... The brain and the spinal cord. Central Nervous System
disorders/damage often happen
during early childhood or
infancy. Marked by lack of
coordination and missing mile-
stones of development. Chunking... Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically. For example, someone gives you their phone number 5-2-6-9-2-8-9. Our brain automatically chunks the numbers into a way we are familiar with them 5-2-6 (break) 9-2-8-9. Cognition... All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communication. Cognition employs many different theories and ideas concerning behavior, development, and many more. Classical Conditioning... The behavioral technique of pairing a naturally occurring stimulus and response chain with a different stimulus in order to produce a response which is not naturally occurring. The most famous experiment being a dog salivating to the sound of a tuning fork even when no food is presented. D Dependent Variable... The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to
manipulations of the independent variable. For example, you are testing the scores of students taking a math test, one group is listening to loud rock music and the other is listening to no music at all. The dependent variable would be the scores of the tests the students took. Dendrite... The bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body. In the demonstration we did in class, the person's shoulders were the dendrites because they were receiving the impulse from the hands (the axon terminal) of the person behind them. DNA... A complex molecule containing the genetic information that make up the chromosomes. The DNA forms out genetic makeup and makes us who we are. DNA sequences are also where problems occur. During replication, DNA can be misread and replicated wrong. This may cause a problem anywhere in the body. Dementia... A chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning. Dementia includes Alzheimer's Disease which is a debilitating disease in which the person looses the ability to remember both long term and short term memory. Dopamine... A compound present in the body as a neurotransmitter and a precursor of other substances including epinephrine. Tobacco and Alcohol both contain dopamine which is why they produce a calming effect when used in moderate amounts. Double Blind Study... Research method in which both the subjects and the experimenter are unaware or 'blind' to the anticipated results. The advantage of a double blind study is that it completely eliminates any sort of bias, including hindsight bias. E End Bulb (axon terminal)... Axon terminals are distal terminations of the branches of an axon. An axon nerve fiber is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses (called "action potentials") away from the neuron's cell body, or soma. In the demonstration we did in class, the person's hands are the end bulb. They are giving the impulse the next person (the next neuron). Excitatory Impulse... a wave of excitation transmitted through tissues and especially nerve fibers and muscles that results in physiological activity or inhibition. Excitatory impulses are more likely to cause the neuron to fire than an inhibitory impulse. Epilepsy... a neurological disorder marked by sudden recurrent episodes of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness, or convulsions, associated with abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Epilepsy is often onset in children's cases. Adult cases are often caused by severe head trauma. In seniors, the most common cause is a stroke or having Alzheimer's. Extinction... The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced. For example, a child may become conditioned to fear the color yellow, but as the child ages, they may loose this fear when yellow things do nothing to harm them. Encoding... The transformation of information to be stored in memory. Encoding is necessary in order to have memories, both short and long term. Encoding also needed for recall of information, such as taking a test. Erik Erikson... An American developmental psychologist designed the Theory of Personality. As high schoolers, we are currently undergoing the stage of Identity vs. Role Confusion. F Sigmund Freud... An Austrian neuroscientist who played a key role in psychoanalysis. Although psychoanalysis has decline in usage in the theraputic world, it has helped develop other widely used methods of psychotherapy. Fissures... A long narrow slit or groove that divides the brain into lobes. Fissures are necessary because they help neuroscientists define different parts of the brain. For example, the fissure of Sylvius separates the frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobe. fMRI (functional MRI)... a technique for revealing blood flow and therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function. An fMRI may be used when someone has a stroke or a seizure to see if all areas of the brain are receiving blood. False Memory... An apparent recollection of an event that did not actually occur. In class, we watched a movie that said people were asked if they went to Disney World and some replied yes. Later, they were asked if they remember seeing Bugs Bunny, again, some said yes, which we all know is impossible because Bugs Bunny is not associated with Disney. False Memory is very influential in judicial trials. Figure Ground Perception... The organization of the visual field into objects that stand out from their surroundings. Figure Ground pictures can often be perceived in two ways or sometimes even more. The picture at the left can be seen as two faces turned toward each other or as a goblet. Fixed Ratio Schedule... A schedule in which the reinforcement is presented after a specific number of responses. For example, a rat must push a lever 30 times before it receives a specific amount of food. G Glial Cells... Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons. Glial cells do not carry impulses down the neuron but the neuron would not be able to carry impulses with out the help of glial cells because they essentially keep the cell alive. Glutamate... Vital neurotransmitter in communication between nerve cells, making them more likely to send on a signal; excessive glutamate production, caused by stressed, loud noise or ototoxic chemicals, is thought to play a key role in the development of tinnitus. It is the main excitatory neurotransmitter and makes up about fifty percent of the nervous tissue. Gestalt Psychology... A movement in psychology founded in Germany in 1912, seeking to explain perceptions in terms of gestalts (an organized whole that is perceived as more than the sum of its parts) rather than by analyzing their constituents. Gestalt theory allows for the breakup of elements from the whole situation into what it really is. Gender Schema... The generalizations children develop about what toys and activities are appropriate for boys versus girls and what jobs are meant for men versus women. For example, girls and boys will begin to identify what toys girls play with and toys boys play with. Gate Control Theory... The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass onto the brain. The “gate” is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain. When the "gate" is too sensitive, Chronic Pain occurs. Generalization... The tendency to associate stimuli, and therefore respond similarly to, due to their closeness on some variable such as size, shape, color, or meaning. In the case of Little Albert, generalization would possibly occur and he would become afraid of all white animals or all small animals, white objects in general, or even animals all together. H Hindsight Bias... The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it. For example, Prospect wins a basketball game against Rolling Meadows and your friend says, "I knew they would win the whole time." Hypothesis... A testable prediction, often implied by a theory. An example of a hypothesis would be, If the loudness of music is increased while taking a test, the score of the test will decrease. Histogram... A diagram consisting of rectangles whose area is proportional to the frequency of a variable and whose width is equal to the class interval. A histogram represents a frequency distribution by means of rectangles whose widths represent class intervals and whose areas are proportional to the corresponding frequencies. Habituation... Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner. Heuristic... A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone that algorithms. A fundamental heuristic is trial and error. Hippocampus... Part of the limbic system. Involved more in memory, and the transfer of information from short-term to long-term memory. Damage to the hippocampus can result in the inability to make new memories. (Short-term memory loss). I Independent Variable... The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. For example, when testing two fertilizers to see which one helps grow a plant the most, the fertilizer is the independent variable. Ions... An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons. The sodium (Na+) in salt is an example on an ion. Implicit Memory... Retention independent of conscious recollection. For example, you are driving home from school and "suddenly" you are home. This is because you have driven home from school so many times you can do it without today conscious recollection. Illusory Correlation... The perception of a relation where none exists. This often occurs with someone's 'lucky' object. For example, your soccer team wins a tournament and your team mate claims it is because he/she wore their lucky socks that day. Identity Crisis (Erik Erikson)... Our sense of self; the adolescent’s task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles. This stage is concurred during late middle school and high school years. Often why teens change their 'style' so often. Introspection... The process of examining one's own consciousness. A study shows that once people go through an introspective therapy session, they are less judgemental of themselves and others decisions. J Just Noticeable Difference... The smallest change in a sensory perception that is detectable 50% of the time. For example, if you were asked to hold two objects of different weights, the just noticeable difference would be the minimum weight difference between the two that you could sense half of the time. John Locke... English philosopher that helped form modern ideas of self and identity. He also identified the theory of self through continuity of consciousness. John B. Watson... American psychologist that established the school of behaviorism. He conducted experiments around animal behavior, child rearing, and advertising. Watson also conducted the Little Albert Experiment. Jet Lag... Extreme tiredness and other physical effects felt by a person after a long flight across several time zones. Jet lag is often associated with the disruption of a person's circadian rhythm. William James... An american philosopher and psychologist that was trained as a physician. His career consisted mostly of teaching at Harvard and writing books about psychology and educational psychology. Judgement... The ability to make considered decisions or come to sensible conclusions. The learning of judgement happens when children and beginning to learn the difference between right and wrong. For example, do I push my little brother down because it is funny, or do I not push him down because I know it is not nice. K Jerome Kagen... American psychologist that was a founding father in the theories of temperament and development of children and infants.
He did extensisve work with
temprament and gave much insight
into the theory of emotion Konrad Lorenz... An Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist. When working with geese, he defined imprinting in the way of birds. Lawrence Kohlberg... American professor who described the Stages of Moral Development, which are Pre-Conventional, Conventional, and Post-Conventional stages. He later married and observed his own two sons go through these stages. Kinethesis... The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts. A loss of this function can result in the inability to walk, talk, or function normally without having to think about where your body parts are at all times. Kids... Kids are technically anyone under the age of 18. They are easiest to condition in any way. L Lesioning... Tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue. Long term effects of lesions are seizures, mood swings, vision changes, and difficulty retaining memories. Limbic System... Doughnut shaped neural system that includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus that is located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives. Damage to this area can result in the loss of memories and inability to form new memories. Learning... A relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to an experience. Learning includes operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and observational learning all of which are successful. Learned Helplessness... The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. A child who performs poorly on math tests and assignments will quickly begin to feel that nothing he does will have any effect on his math performance. Long-Term Memory... The relatively permanent and limitless store-house of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences. Examples: How to multiply numbers, how to spell, how to walk, where you live, where you went to school, your childhood pet. Latent Content... The process of examining one's own consciousness. Freud said that dreams about elongated objects such as tree trunks, rockets, or weapons were really dreams concerning the male genitalia. M Myelin Sheath... A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next. When the sheath degrades, impulses are impaired or even lost when trying to travel down the axon. Mean... The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores. The mean of:
1 4 6 8 3 is 4.4 Median... The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
1 3 5 7 10 42 84
median: 7 Mode... The most frequently occurring score or scores in a distribution.
1 2 2 3 5 6 9 9 9 10
mode: 9 Midbrain... a small region of the brain that is association with relaying auditory and visual information. Symptoms range from Parkinson-like symptoms to problems with eye movements, vision, hearing, motor symptoms. Medulla Oblongata... Part of the brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion. Damage to this area is life-threatening because of how many important functions it carries out. N Nature vs. Nurture... The debate about whether genetics (nature) or environment/experience(nurture) determines behavior. This debate often comes up with behavior psychologists and behavior geneticists. One may ask, "Is a person smart because of their genes? Or is it because of how they were raised? Node of Ranvier... A gap in the myelin sheath of a nerve, between adjacent Schwann cells. Nodes of Ranvier are needed because ions cannot pass through membranes (myelin sheath) so these gaps allow ions to flow in and out of the neuron. Neurotransmitters... Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse. Acetylcholine is an example of a neurotransmitter. Neuron... A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system. Neurons are used to send and receive messages in the nervous system. In a demonstration in class, a line of people stood with their hands on the shoulders of the person in front of them. A squeeze was sent down the line and this represented an impulse being sent down a neuron. Naturalistic Observation... Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. This could be used to observe a teaching technique in a preschool. Children would be observed without their knowledge in order to avoid bias actions. Nightmare... A frightening dream occurring in REM sleep. Nightmares appear (from a neurological stand point) the exact same as a 'dream' or any other activity during REM sleep. O Operational Definition... A statement of the procedures used to define research variable. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. Object Permanence... The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived. This is observable when you play peek-a-boo with an infant. Opiates... Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. However, certain medications such as morphine (in moderation) can help ease pain of serious medical issues. Operant Conditioning... A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. For example, if a student studies hard for a test and gets a good grade, the student will continue to study hard for tests in order to continue to receive good grades. One-Word Stage... The stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words. A child will communicate what he or she wants: food, momma. Or sometimes just saying things to identify them: doggy, TV, music. Occipital Lobe... One of four lobes of the brain. Contains the visual cortex and therefore plays a major role in the interpretation of visual information. Damage to occipital lobe more often than not results in blindness or severe depletion of visual abilities. P Placebo Effect... Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent. For example, you give two people pills for back pain but only one person is actually receiving medication and the other is receiving a placebo, both recipients may say they feel better. This is because the idea of having medication made the person not have back pain. Phrenology... The detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities. When Phrenology was first invented, it was a form of party game! Phineas Gage... An American railroad construction foreman now remembered for his improbable[C] survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe, and for that injury's reported effects on his personality and behavior. Parapsychology... The study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis. Including telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation and apparitional experiences. Peripheral Nervous System... The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body. Damage to the peripheral nervous system is harmful but new therapies are emerging and showing a lot of promise. Parietal Lobe... One of four lobes of the brain. Contains the visual cortex and therefore plays a major role in the interpretation of visual information. Damage to the left parietal lobe results in: right-left confusion, difficulty writing and math. Damage to the right parietal lobe results in: spatial issues with the body and limbs. Q Quasi-experimental design (quasi experiment)... Any research study that uses specific experimental methods but does not randomize subjects. For example: randomly selecting 50 boys and 50 girls and asking them their opinions about puppies. Questionnaire... A set of printed or written questions with a choice of answers, devised for the purposes of a survey or statistical study. Example of a questionnaire would be asking a class of high schoolers how long they study for finals. Quota Sample... A nonprobability sample, chosen without regard to location, representativeness, etc. from individuals who meet certain specified criteria. Example: randomly selecting 300 high school students from a list of ID numbers for a questionnaire. Random Sampling... A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. For example: if you were to question a group of high schoolers, you should have 10 people from each grade, 5 of which are girls and 5 of which are guys. Regression... Psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated. Regression often happens due to abuse both physical and sexual. Replication... Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situation, to see whether the basic findings extends to other participants and circumstances. However, some experiments cannot be replicated. The 'Little Albert' experiment most definitely cannot be replicated. Representative Heuristic... Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information. For example, if I meet someone with a laid back attitude, long hair, and a nice tan, I may assume they are from the west coast. Random Assignment... Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by change, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups. Example: selecting participants for an experiment based upon their ID number. Recency Effect... The tendency to remember the last bit of information due to the shorter time available for forgetting. For example: cat, dog, bird, class, apple, run, tent, fire, house, mother, oven. You are most likely to remember house, mother, or oven. R S Sympathetic Nervous System... Part of the Autonomic Nervous System responsible for the fight or flight phenomenon and which plays a role (along with the Parasympathetic Nervous System) in maintaining the body's homeostasis. Damage to this system can result in excessive tiredness or thirst, vertigo, anxiety, fast or slow heart rate Schema... A cognitive framework that helps organize and interpret information in the world around us. For example, a young child may first develop a schema for a horse. She knows that a horse is large, has hair, four legs and a tail. When the little girl encounters a cow for the first time, she might initially call it a horse. After all, it fits in with her schema for the characteristics of a horse; it is a large animal that has hair, four legs and a tail. Once she is told that this is a different animal called a cow, she will modify her existing schema for a horse and create a new schema for a cow. Self-Esteem... The term self-esteem is used to describe a person's overall sense of self-worth or personal value. Maslow believed that self-esteem coupled with self-respect can achieve self-actualization which is needed in theory for a healthy life and view of oneself. Sensorimotor Stage... The first stage in Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development where a child's primary way of learning about the world is through the senses and movement. These stages are called: reflexes, primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, coordination reactions, tertiary circular reactions, and early representation thought Serotonin... A neurotransmitter involved in mood, sleep, appetite, and impulsive and aggressive behavior. Too little has been associated with depression and some anxiety disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder). Many antidepressants attempt to reduce the amount of serotonin that is taken back (reuptake) into the sending neuron (e.g., Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors [SRI]). Skinner Box... A cage designed for animals in operant conditioning experiments. For example, researchers could utilize the Skinner box to determine which schedule of reinforcement led to the highest rate of response in the study subjects. T Teratogens... An agent or factor that causes malformation of an embryo. Alcohol and drugs are a major teratogens that are, unfortunately, most often used. Thalamus... Considered the central switching station of the brain because all of the body's senses (except the olfactory senses) pass through this before being relayed to the brain. If damage to the thalamus is sustained, some motor functions and most sensory systems will be impaired. Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision... A theory of color vision which suggests that people utilize three different wavelengths of light to perceive color. When a person is born with colorblindness, that does not necessarily mean that a person cannot see any color at all. A person can not be able to see just red or green or a combination of any colors. Temporal Lobe... One of the four lobes of the brain. Contains the auditory cortex and therefore plays a role in receptive language as well as memory and emotion. Damage to this area causes: problems with auditory sensation and perception, difficulty attending to auditory and visual stimuli, visual perception disorders, problems organizing and categorizing verbal materials, language comprehension problems, impaired long-term memory, changes in affective behavior and personality, and changes in sexual behavior Theory... A general idea about the relationship of two or more variables. An example is Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development. Trial and Error Learning... Learning that takes place through the application of possible solutions to a problem. We as high schoolers often end up using trial and error on math homework. U Unconsious... According to Freud, the area of the psyche where unknown wishes and needs are kept that play a significant role in our conscious behavior. Freud also developed the theory of psychosexual behavior. Unconditionned Response... The response in a stimulus-response chain that is naturally occurring as opposed to learned. An unconditionned response could be a dog salivating or a child's fear of a loud noises. Unconditionned Stimulus... The stimulus in a stimulus-response chain that is naturally occurring as opposed to learned. A natural stimulus is more often than not food or drink of some sort. V Viability... Capable of normal growth and development. This term is usually used when talking about fetal development and the embryonic stages of life. Lev Vygotsky... The founder of an original holistic theory of human cultural and biosocial development. Vygotsky was one of the most controversial psychologists of his time. Variable... Any factor which has the potential to influence another factor in a research study. For example: the amount of water a plant receives can be varied and is therefore the variable of the experiment. Visual Cliff... A visual cliff involves an apparent, but not actual drop from one surface to another. This tool was originally developed to determine if infants had developed depth perception. Variability... The degree to which a distribution of scores vary around the mean. High variability means scores are spread wider apart and low variability means scores are relatively close together. Typical ways of determining variability are the range, interquartile range, semi-interquartile range, variance, and standard deviation.
Variable Ratio Schedule... A schedule in which the reinforcement is presented after a varying number of responses. For example: a slot machine.
W Wilhelm Wundt...German professor that established the first psychology laboratory and performed psychology’s first experiments. He helped identify many abnormal behaviors. Wernickes Area... The area of the brain that is important in language development. Wernickes Aphasia occurs when damage to this area is sustained. Wavelength... A term describing how sounds and light waves are measured. Visible light is in the range of 400 to 700 nanometers. Withdrawl... A term referring to the feelings of discomfort, distress, and intense craving for a substance that occur when use of the substance is stopped. Withdrawl can happen with any type of substance whether it is prescribed or not. Wernickes Aphasia... Aphasia resulting from damage to the Wernicke’s area of the frontal lobe. Affects written and spoken language. X X-ray (CT Scan)... A photographic or digital image of the internal composition of something, esp. a part of the body. X-ray's are used mostly to identify broke bones and abscesses. X Chromosome... The sex chromosome found in both males and females. Contains sex-linked traits. X Axis... The principal or horizontal axis of a system of coordinates. The x-axis represents the independent variable or the variable that was changed. Y Y Axis... The secondary or vertical axis of a system of coordinates. It is related to the dependent variable in an experiment. Y Chromosome... The sex chromosome found only in males. There are no sex-linked genes on the Y chromosome. Z Zollner Illusion... An optical illusion in which long parallel lines appear to diverge or converge when crossed by rows of short oblique lines. Zygote... After a female egg is fertilized, it becomes known as a zygote. A zygote is also the earliest stage of the embryotic stages. Phil Zimbaro... A psychologist and a professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is well known for his Stanford prison study and his authorship of many books.
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