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08 Age of Jefferson
Transcript of 08 Age of Jefferson
Alien and Sedition Acts
had made the
incumbent, John Adams, and the Federalist Party very unpopular. Jefferson had lost a narrow election in 1796 but in the rematch election of 1800 he won. Jefferson had a very different
personality from his predecessors
(Washington and Adams). Although
just as wealthy, his views were
more in favor of the common man
and this made him very popular
with the people.
With a Democratic-Republican
controlled Congress he made
many changes shown in the
box to the right… but he did
change his mind on the
Federalist idea of a National
Bank and kept Hamilton’s
Bank of the U.S.. One early issue that arose in Jefferson's presidency was the Marbury issue... Judicial Review 1:00 With an electoral tie, the decision
went to the House of
Representatives as called for in
the Constitution. The House, like
the electoral college, also
deadlocked. Days went by as vote
after vote was called, each ending
in ties. Exhausted lawmakers put
their heads on their desks and
slept between votes. Some
napped on the floor.
Jefferson finally won on the thirty-sixth vote. After the elections of 1796 and 1800, it became clear the current system of electing president and vice president was seriously flawed. Not only was it likely that the first and second place winners (President and VP) would be from different parties (AWKWARD) but that it could be difficult to resolve a tie. The 12th Amendment required the Electoral College to hold one vote for president and a separate vote (ballot) for VP. AND THE WINNER IS? After the French and Indian war, France gave
Louisiana and New Orleans to the Spanish to
prevent it from falling into British hands.
During the Revolution Spain allied with the
colonies and used this area to support the
colonist in revolution.
In a secret treaty in 1800 Napoleon forced Spain to
give Louisiana back to France. He wanted to rebuild a
French Empire in North America, using Haiti in the
Caribbean as a jumping off point... Haiti however
revolted and the French lost the island and Napoleon’s dream of a rebuilt empire in the America's. Jefferson sent Monroe and Livingston to negotiate with France’s foreign minister Talleyrand to buy New Orleans... With Haiti and his American dreams dashed, Napoleon offered the Americans New Orleans and all of Louisiana for $15 million... He needed the money for his military in Europe and wanted to create a rival for his enemy, Britain.
On October 3 ,1803 the senate approved the Louisiana Purchase... doubling the size of the U.S.. Louisiana Purchase Louisiana Puchase 1:28 This vast new land would need to be explored and Jefferson knew just who to call... Lewis and Clark Expedition Jefferson sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the Louisiana Purchase in 1804 (Corps of Discovery). They were helped by Sacajawea – a Shoshone woman who, along with French fur trapper husband, accompanied and aided Lewis and Clark on their expedition. Almost a year and a half later in 1805 they reached the Pacific Ocean. In their spare time, they wrote in their journals and these journals have been invaluable primary sources telling us of their journey and about what they learned on the journey. Barbary Pirates During the late 1700s and early 1800s, American merchant ships fanned out across the oceans. The overseas trade, while profitable, was also risky. Merchant
ships sailing in the Mediterranean risked
capture by pirates from the Barbary
States of North Africa, who would steal
cargo and hold ships’ crews for ransom. Attacks continued until the United States sent the USS Constitution, a large warship, and other ships to end them. The Barbary pirates were a serious problem, but an even larger threat soon loomed. Arrrrrrrgh... There be Pirates!! But not in the Caribbean this time... In reaction to Britain and France’s violation of US neutrality Jefferson supported a ban on all foreign trade - the result was devastating to business... It was like “cutting ones throat to stop the nosebleed.”
It hurt the economy, Jefferson, and his party.
In the last four days of President Thomas Jefferson's presidency, the United States Congress replaced the Embargo Act of 1807 with the almost unenforceable...
Non-Intercourse Act of March 1809. This Act lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports. Like its predecessor, the Embargo Act, it was mostly ineffective, and contributed to the coming of the War of 1812. In addition, it seriously damaged the economy of the United States. When Great Britain and France went to war in 1803, each country wanted to stop the United States (who remained neutral) from supplying goods to the other. The British captured many American
merchant ships searching for war supplies and sailors
who had run away from the British navy, forcing the
sailors to return to British ships… this was called
impressment. IMPRESSMENT Sound familiar? It should... all over again! Embargo Act –(1807) Embargo & Self Gov't Implications 4:21 Embargo Economic Impacts 2:10 Britain continued to seek ways to slow America’s westward growth and provided support for Indian leaders who were resisting white expansion on Indian lands. INDIAN CONFLICT Tecumseh - A Shawnee chief who sought to bring all Native Americans into a confederation to stand against white expansion. Was supported by the British and helped by his brother, “the Prophet." William Henry Harrison - Governor of Indiana talked with Tecumseh but when Tecumseh refused to stop his efforts Harrison struck while Tecumseh was traveling to the south to enlist the help of the Creek Nation. In November of 1811 Tecumseh was defeated at the Battle of Tippecanoe. British Supplies - Americans soon learned that Tecumseh was helped and supplied weapons by the British… AGAIN!!
British impressement and interference with American shipping would mean WAR!! Battle of Tippecanoe 6:01 Battle of Tippecanoe Jefferson's second term ended in 1809 and James Madison who had served as Jefferson's Secretary of State was elected President. Madison was left to deal with the rising tensions with Britain and the Native Americans to the west. Before we look at the Indian conflicts and the start of the War of 1812, let's take a look at a summary of Jefferson's presidency and a peek at things to come. Jefferson Summary & Madison Preview 3:58 USS CONSTITUTION Missouri Compromise 4:16 The Erie Canal 2:41 The National Road 2:36 (1:27) Just the facts... War Hawks - legislators from the South and West who called for war with Britain. Mostly Democratic-Republicans. Treaty of Ghent signed in Belgium ended the war on December 24, 1814Both sides agreed to give back their lands they had before the war (so nobody actually won anything).But, for America it created strong sense of patriotism, it broke down Native American resistance, American manufacturing boomed, and America showed the world it was a viable, powerful country. Doves - Northern Federalist opposed war and wanted friendlier trade relations with Britain and said America was not ready to fight such a war. (btw, that is my shorthand name for them) James Madison – president 1809-1817 - ask for declaration of war… War declared by congress in 1812 War at Sea At the Battle of
defeated the British
and took control of the lake, but the large British navy would successfully blockade America’s ports. Blockade Blockade Canadian Battles America attempted to
invade Canada but failed;
however, General Harrison
defeated the British and
Native Americans at the Thames River and killed Tecumseh. This secured the Northeastern United States and dealt a big blow to northern Native American tribes. The Creek War Creek Indians in the South
(Alabama) had attacked
and destroyed Fort Mims,
in response Andrew Jackson
of Tennessee gathered 2000 volunteers and defeated the Creek at the battle of Horseshoe Bend, forcing the Treaty of Fort Jackson in which Indians surrender millions of acres of land. The Creek War 9:30 War in the East British defeat of France
in the Napoleonic wars
frees up resources for
Britain to fight the
Americans. They break through
American defenses and burn the
White House and Capitol but are
unable to take Fort McHenry in
Baltimore… this is the inspiration
for the lyrics of our national anthem. Star Spangled Banner 1:12 Battle of New Orleans British try to take the port of New Orleans and close the Mississippi.
British are defeated by Andrew Jackson who was commanding regular soldiers, African American Troops, state militia, and pirates led by Jean Lafitte. Battle of New Orleans 2:24 2000 British casualties / 70 American casualties
Earns a Jackson national fame and helps insure Britain will honor the Treaty of Ghent MONROE’S TREATIES President Monroe left one of the biggest legacies in American history with respect to foreign policy. First, he signed three treaties that would define American borders for good! Rush-Bagot Agreement - limited naval power on Great Lakes to both America and British (basically said they had to share the Great Lakes)
Convention of 1818 - Extended American fishing rights, but most importantly it established the permanent border between the US and Canada at 49°N latitude to the Rocky Mountains.
Adams-Onis Treaty - US paid $5 million to get Florida, but gave up claims to Texas, established the border between what is now Florida and Georgia. War of 1812 2:00 Battle of New Orleans 8:24 - Impressement of sailors
- Interference with shipping
- Arming the Indians - Increased patriotism
- Increased manufacturing
- Decreased Indian resistance U.S. Expansion 3:30 The Seminole often helped runaway slaves and sometimes
raided U.S. settlements. In April 1818 Jackson’s
troops invaded Florida to capture Seminole
raiders. This act began the First
Seminole War. During the war
Jackson took over most of Spain’s
important military posts. Then he
overthrew the governor of Florida.
He carried out these acts against
Spain without receiving direct orders
from President Monroe. Jackson’s
actions upset Spanish leaders. Most
Americans, however, supported Jackson.
Jackson’s presence in Florida convinced
Spanish leaders to negotiate. First Seminole War MONROE'S DOCTRINE Monroe's Doctrine was the highpoint of
Monroe’s presidency, and one of the most
important events in American foreign
Latin American countries declared
independence from Spain. Simon Bolívar
led many of these revolutions. The United
States feared European countries would take
control of newly free countries so the
United States issued Monroe Doctrine and
warned European powers not to interfere in
Americas while also putting Latin America in U.S. sphere of influence.
Doctrine – four basic points
1. US would not interfere in the affairs of European nations.
2. US would recognize, and not interfere with, countries that already existed in the Americas.
3. The Western Hemisphere was off-limits to colonization by any foreign power.
4. Any attempt by a European power to colonize or interfere in the Western Hemisphere
would be considered a hostile act. Nationalism - pride and loyalty to a nation… exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations. Following the War of 1812, Americans felt increasingly proud of being American. NATIONALISM Henry Clay - a US Representative from Kentucky, was a supporter of American nationalism.
American System - Idea from Clay, sought to make the US economy stronger and fully self-sufficient (does not need other countries). He pushed for a national bank (the original one of Alexander Hamilton was no longer there) and wanted a protective tariff to protect American businesses and to generate revenue to build roads and canals...roads and canals would be make interstate trade easier. Cumberland Road - 1st road built by national government, ran from Maryland to West Virginia, on the Ohio River. THE AMERICAN SYSTEM Canals and nationally built roads allowed for easier trade, which supported Clay’s American System. National Road - extended the Cumberland Road and connected the East Coast with Illinois, which was at the time the American west. Erie Canal - Ran from Albany to Buffalo, Buffalo being on Lake Erie…this provided a full water route from New York City to Lake Erie Natchez Trace and Wilderness Trail - Old Indian trails that provided access through the southern United States The Erie Canal Sectionalism – different regions of the countries having very different interests.
During the 1820’s we see the emergence of sectional differences. This will be a problem throughout the 1800’s and eventually will lead to the Civil War. One of the first such issues, and the biggest regional issue throughout the 19th century, was the issue over slavery. SECTIONALISM Missouri Compromise - By 1820, America had 22 states, 11 slave states and 11 free states. In 1820, Missouri applied to join the United States as a slave state, causing an imbalance between free states and slave states. Henry Clay from Kentucky came up with the Missouri Compromise… • Missouri would join the Union as a slave state. • Maine would join the Union as a free state.
(kept the number of slave and free states equal) • Slavery prohibited in new territories/states formed
north of 36°37’ N latitude (Missouri’s southern border) In 1824 a presidential election brought controversy. Andrew Jackson won the popular vote but failed to have enough electoral votes to win office. Under the Constitution, the House of Representatives had to choose the winner. To the surprise of many, the House elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Election of John Quincy Adams Supporters of Jackson, a Senator from Tennessee at the time, denounced this as a "corrupt bargain." It was widely believed that Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House at the time, convinced Congress to elect Adams, who then made Clay his Secretary of State. Monroe Summary 4:01 John Quincy Adams 3:23 Until the early 1800s, American took most of their cultural ideas from Great Britain and Europe. But as American politics and the economy developed, so too did a new national culture. Writers and artists were inspired by American history and the American landscape. Cooper's novel The Last of the Mohicans takes place during the French and Indian War. By placing fictional characters in a real historical setting, Cooper popularized a type of writing called
historical fiction. Washington Irving One of the first American
writers to gain international
fame was Washington Irving.
Born in 1783, he was named after
George Washington. Irving’s works
often told about American history.
Irving warned that Americans should
learn from the past and be cautious about the future. Irving shared this idea in one of his best-known short stories, “Rip Van Winkle.” This story describes a man who falls asleep during the time of the American Revolution. He wakes up 20 years later to a society he does not recognize. Irving published this and another well-known tale, “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow,” in an 1819–20 collection. James Cooper The writings of Irving and Cooper inspired painters. These artists began to paint landscapes that showed the history of America and the beauty of the land. Earlier American painters had mainly painted portraits.
Hudson River School - By the 1830s the Hudson River school had emerged. The artists of the Hudson River school created paintings that reflected national pride and an appreciation of the American landscape. They took their name from the subject of many of their paintings—the Hudson River valley.
Landscape painter Thomas Cole was a founder of the Hudson River school who recognized the unique qualities of the American landscape. The Oxbow, 1836 - Thomas Cole (American, 1801–1848) Oil on canvas The Hunters of Kentucky 3:16 RELIGION & MUSIC Spirituals - Through the early and mid-1800s, several waves of religious revivalism swept the United States. During periods of revivalism, meetings were held for the purpose of reawakening religious faith. These meetings sometimes lasted for days and included large sing-alongs. At many revival meetings people sang songs called spirituals. Spirituals are a type of folk hymn found in both white and African American folk-music traditions. Folk Music - popular folk music of the period reflected the unique views of the growing nation in a different way. One of the most popular songs of the era was “Hunters of Kentucky,” which celebrated the Battle of New Orleans. It became an anthem for the spirit of nationalism in the United States and was used successfully in Andrew Jackson’s campaign for the presidency in 1828. Greek & Roman Architecture - Thomas Jefferson called for Americans to model their architecture after the styles used in ancient Greece and Rome. Many Americans admired the ancient civilization of Greece and the Roman Republic because they contained some of the same democratic and republican ideals as the new American nation did. As time went by, more architects followed Jefferson’s ideas. Growing American cities soon had distinctive new buildings designed in the Greek and Roman styles. These buildings were usually made of marble or other stone and featured large, stately columns. ARCHITECTURE EDUCATION Several early American political leaders expressed a belief that democracy would only succeed in a country of educated and enlightened people. But there was no general agreement on who should provide that education. Eventually, the idea of a state-funded public school gathered support. In 1837 Massachusetts lawmakers created a state board of education. Other states followed this example, and the number of public schools slowly grew. Era of Good Feelings - era of peace, pride & progress during Monroe's presidency S