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The Road to a 9 on the CCOT Essay!!

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Maryum Begum

on 10 June 2014

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Transcript of The Road to a 9 on the CCOT Essay!!

How to Write the Continuity and Change Over Time Essay from APWH 2014
By: Ashley Alvarez, Maryum Begum, and Olivia Chan
How to Answer the Prompt:
Tips:
paraphrase the prompt to ensure you understand what is asked
underline key terms/phrases to mention in your essay
Example:
“Throughout the period 1500-1750, what aspects of trade has changed or remained the same in this area?”
Key phrases: interregional trade, 1500-1750, continuities AND changes
How to Write a CCOT essay
Prompt:
Write an essay that:
Has a relevant thesis and supports the thesis with appropriate historical evidence.
Addresses all parts of the question.
Uses world historical context to show continuities and changes over time.
Analyzes the process of continuity and change over time

- Analyze continuities and changes in the ways ONE of the following regions
participated in interregional trade during the period circa 1500 to 1750.
Latin America, including the Caribbean
Sub-Saharan Africa
Southeast Asia
The Road to a 9 on the CCOT Essay!!!
Important Ideas to Think About
1. What role do cities play in trade?
2. Major players: dominant or dominated regions
3. Technological inventions & innovations
4. What was traded?
5. Role of merchants
6. Currency
7. Routes
8. Cultural Exchange
9. PERSIA+G, SPRITE, SPE...
Overview of Latin America & Caribbean
Trade in Latin America and Caribbean: Pre 1500
Separated from “global trade”
Aztecs:
expansionist policy = tributary states
extensive roads
Incans:
expansionist, extensive roads & tunnels
quipu: knots to keep data


Latin America and Caribbeans - Major Developments: 1500-1700
- Mercantilism - economic nationalism for building a wealthy and powerful state; favorable balance of trade
forced labor used to extract silver & work in plantations
silver finances Spanish army and bureaucracy
profit cash crops (sugar tobacco, cotton, coffee)


Colombian Exchange:
diffusion of plants, crops, animals, and people
Smallpox
Causes:
the spread of animals (Colombian Exchange)
lack of immunity
smallpox blankets
Effects:
devastated the population in Americas
wiping out the native slaves in the encomienda system
creates famine and malnutrition, lack of people to work fields
creates demand for other sources of labor
Triangular Trade - network of trade routes connecting Americas, Europe and Africa
Plantations
Multiracial Society - stratification based on race

Change in social system based on race
- syncretism of religion
- Catholic missionaries
Overview of Sub-Saharan Africa
Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa: Pre 1500
Sub-Saharan Africa - Major Developments: 1500-1700
Overview of 1500-1700
Collapse of Mongol Empire, Ottomans defeat the Byzantine Empire
European Exploration: Renaissance, Reconquista, Enlightenment, Scientific Revolution, Commercial Revolution
Columbian Exchange
Creation of a global trade network: maritime trade, trading post empires
Technological Improvements:
gunpowder weapons
sternpost rudder
lateen sails
astrolabe
magnetic compass
3-masted caravels
Asian-centered economy -> global economy

Connections: Changes and Continuities of Trade in Latin America & the Caribbeans
Prompt
intraregional trade -> global trade
became a primarily export economy; Latin America & Caribbeans are dependents
introduction of cash crops originating from Old World
increased urban population and cultivation & enclosure of land, use of rural areas
demographic shifts (changes labor force)

agriculturally based economy
religious syncretism: native beliefs still present
labor systems (incan mit’a system)
damage to the environment to produce crops

Connections: Changes and Continuities of Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa
Connections: Changes and Continuities of Trade in Southeast Asia
Sample thesis (Latin America/Caribbeans)
Sample thesis (Southeast Asia)
Sample thesis (Sub-Saharan Africa)
Wrapping it Up: What to Write in the Conclusion
restate thesis
reiterate important points
make connections

take 5 minutes to plan
brainstorm & organize by:
jot down everything you know about this area during the period. Pick the region you know the most about
timeline
Ways to Organize Your Essay
Regional (uncommon)
I. Intro
II. Region 1
a. beginning
b. middle
c. end
III. Region II
a. beginning
b. middle
c. end
IV. Region III
a. beginning
b. middle
c. end
V. Conclusion
Chronologica
l
I. Intro
II. Be
ginning
III. Middle
IV. End
V. Conclusion
Topical
I. Intro
II. Theme 1
a. change
b. change
c. continuity
III. Theme 2
a. change
b. change
c. continuity
IV. Theme 3
a. change
b. change
c. continuity
V. Conclusion
Essay Checklist
Thesis:
time period
changes
continuities
Changes: what changes have occurred throughout the period? from the previous?
Continuities: what has remained the same throughout the period?
Chronological order (that only makes sense)
Lots of evidence and facts
Analysis:
WHY: causes of changes & continuities
Significance of the changes & continuities

Stay within the period
developed independently; isolated
agricultural economies
ritualistic polytheistic religion; “divine” kings
large urban centers
American Civilizations:
Mayans (300-900 CE)
Aztecs (1400-1521 CE)
Inca (1400-1540)

- European Exploration = inclusion of Americas in global trade
- Haciendas & Encomienda system
West Africa
Ghana
Songhay
Mali
Kongo
salt-gold trade

Eastern & Southern Africa
Swahili traders
Indian Ocean trade

West Africa
Trans-Saharan trade
gold traveled north for salt (“salt road”)
cotton, leather goods, pepper, slaves, animals
contact with North Africans, Muslims
camels & caravans: overcame the desert
Sudanic states
trade routes more well-established with growth of these empires
kings converted to Islam -> strengthen trade relations -> strengthened king by increased wealth of empire
safe trade routes
men controlled long distance trade
currency: gold, copper, iron, shells, and strips of cloth
Eastern & Southern Africa
gold, slaves, ivory with Muslims
Swahili city states/wealthy trading cities: Mogadishu, Kilwa, Sofala (also cultural & political centers)
elites & merchants convert to Islam
impressive mosques, public buildings, fortified cities


Christian missionaries (King Alfonso I)
European exploration
exploring the African coast
trade ports established
Triangular trade: Europeans get in on the slave trade
wealth accumulated by trade: kingdoms become more powerful
slave raids and unequal trade relationship
trade for guns increase political conflict

Overview of South East Asia
cultural influences from India & China
native beliefs: animist
agrarian kingdoms & maritime states (dependent on trade)
Sultanate of Malacca, Malay empires, Kingdom of Champa, Khmer Empire
Trade in Southeast Asia: Pre 1500
Indian Ocean Trade
major trading partners: South Asia, China, East Africa
Hindu, Buddhist, & Islam influences
predictable monsoon winds
relatively safe
connected to land trade routes (Silk Road)
spices, bananas, coconuts, sugar cane, root plants

South East Asia - Major Developments: 1500-1700
European entry:
Portuguese: Vasco da Gama, control of Malacca & spice trade, Macao
Spanish:
colonization of Philippines
Manila galleons: entrepot, helped Spain transport American bullion
Dutch: (later 17th century) commercial concessions & control of Indonesia, monopoly over spice trade (took Malacca from Portugal)
English: British East India Company
Mercantilism

Changes
Continuities
Triangular trade = chattel slavery, kingdoms reorient economies to trade w/ Europe
African leaders convert to Catholicism for economic and political power

internal Africa still unexplored by Europeans
state-building by trade relations
slave trade
Trans-Saharan trade (gold, salt, textiles, metal)

Changes
Continuities
European monopolies on trade routes
imposed tariffs on imports, taxes
Dutch East spice islands
Asian trading empires in decline, mainly exports
colonization
ocean routes once linked up to land routes
Chinese isolation
withdrawal of Hindu posts
introduction to Christianity
destroyed Muslim coastal forts at Calicut, Ormuz, Goa, Malacca

use of monsoon winds
spice trade
importance of Straits of Malacca
Muslim, Indian, and Malay participants
Changes
Continuities
During the period of circa 1500-1700, interregional trade in Latin America and the Caribbeans changed as it went from isolationist to being included in global trade, but continued to have an agriculturally based economy, along with maintaining certain labor systems.
During the period of circa 1500-1700, interregional trade in Sub-Saharan Africa changed with European exploration and chattel slavery, but the areas of Sub-Saharan Africa beyond the coasts continued to trade independent of European intervention.
During the period of circa 1500-1700, interregional trade in Southeast Asia changed with the introduction of and domination by the Europeans in the region. Despite this, trade between regions in South East Asia continued to be influenced by the environment and tradition.
Outline of the essay : Latin America
Topical
I. Thesis: During the period of circa 1500-1700, interregional trade in Latin America and the Caribbeans changed as it went from isolationist to being included in global trade, and influenced their religion. Although it continued to have forced labor systems.

II. Trade
a.change: isolationist to being global
b.change: revenue of Latin America’s exports is now belonging to europe, become dependent
c. continuity: export of crops/agricultural based economy

III. Religion
a. change: polytheistic to monotheistic
b. change: the use of missionaries
c. continuity: maintaining some elements of their religion/syncretism

IV. Forced labor systems
a. change: work on plantations to produce cash crops/ crop monoculture
b. change: no longer the use of natives as slaves but africans (encomienda-> repartimiento)
c. continuity: using forced labor to produce crops to trade with

V. Conclusion: Latin America before it was wrapped into the mix of diffusion was polytheistic involving human sacrifices and created a religion focused on worshiping the sun. Along with trading inter regionally with Latin American city states and using forced labor to produce the crops to trade. Thanks to advancements in technology Latin America became an integral part in global trade with the export of cash crops though due to being conquered by Spain they became a dependent economy. Trade also influenced their religion but the use of forced labor remained effective. The Colombian Exchange and triangular trade drastically shaped Latin america and the Caribbean.

http://www.unc.edu/world/Global_Updates_2009/May_June/latin_america
http://www.slideshare.net/dewert/ccot-chart
http://www.sjcdslibrary.net/columbian-exchange.html
http://www.eduplace.com/kids/socsci/books/applications/imaps/maps/g5s_u3/index.html
http://hist140.wikia.com/wiki/Fall2012
http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/teachers/curriculum/m20/activity1.php
Google
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