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Traditional Learning Theory
Transcript of Traditional Learning Theory
Traditional Learning Theories
Stivers. (Artist). Ivan Pavlov classical conditioning dogs research experiment [Print Photo]. Retrieved from http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/psychology/pavlov.html
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Cognitivist Theory In Learning
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Social Cognitivist Theory
By: Calvin Marshall
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Constructivist Orientation In Learning
What is Behaviorist theory?
The focus is on observable behavior rather then the internal cognitive processes. Once learning occurs some sort of observable external behavior is apparent.
The environment shapes learning and behavior, not individual characteristics.
The principles of contiguity (how close in time two events must be for a bond to be formed) and reinforcement (any means of increasing the likelihood that an event will be repeated) are central to explaining the learning process. (Merriam and Caffarella 1991: 126)
- Came up with the theory of "Classical Conditioning". Did experiments with dogs.
r- Developed the theory "Operant Conditioning". Which is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior
John B. Watso
n- Created the psychological school of behaviorism.
Merriam, S. B., Cafferella, R. S., Baumgartner, L. M., (2007). Teaching in Adulthood A Comprehensive Guide
Kolb, D. A. 1984. Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hartley, J. (1998) Learning and Studying. A research perspective, London: Routledge.
Tennant, M. (1988, 1997) Psychology and Adult Learning, London: Routledge.
Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K. & Lewis, F.M. (2002). Health Behavior and Health Education. Theory, Research and Practice. San Fransisco: Wiley & Sons.
What is Contructivism?
What is Cognitism?
Emphasizes an individual's inherent drive towards self-actualization.
Belief that people are inherently good.
Education that engages with the whole person and with their experiences;.
Learning that combines the logical and intuitive, as well as the intellect and feelings.
Physiological needs such as hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, relaxation and bodily integrity must be satisfied before the next level comes into play.
Safety needs call for a predictable and orderly world. If these are not satisfied people will look to organize their worlds to provide for the greatest degree of safety and security. If satisfied, people will come under the force of level three.
Love and belonging needs cause people to seek warm and friendly relationships.
- Self-esteem needs involve the desire for strength, achievement, adequacy, mastery and competence.
- Self-actualization is the full use and expression of talents, capacities and potentialities.
Behaviorist Theory In Learning
Theories In Context
Behaviorist Orientation-Study of how to affect changes in behavior.
Humanist Orientation- Study of acts used to affect individual development.
Cognitivist Orientation- Study of the way information is processed.(insight, memory, perception, metacognition)
Social Cognitivist Orientation- The study of how social interaction and observation of others influences learning.
Constructivist Orientation- The study of how an individual constructs a sense of meaning from hands on experience.
Cognitive learning theories are based on how people think (Ormrod, 2008).
In cognitive orientation, learning involves the reorganization of experiences in order to make sense of stimuli from the environment (Merriam, S.B., & Caffarella, 2007).
Traditional Learning Theory
Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience (Kolb, 1983).
Introduce the 5 Orientations
Explain Each orientation
Describe the objectives of Learning Theories
What is Learning?
Fathers of Behaviorist Orientation
Keep the learner active. Learning is better when the learner is active rather than passive.
Repetition, generalization and discrimination are important notions.. Skills are not acquired without frequent practice.
Reinforcement is the motivator. Positive reinforcers like rewards and successes are preferable to negative events like punishments and failures.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
1min and 19seconds only
Cognitive theories of learning are concerned with processes which occur inside the brain as a person learns.
People actively process information and learning takes place through the efforts of the learner.
Mental processes include taking in, organizing, storing, retrieving, and finding relationships between information.
New information is linked to old knowledge.
Creation of original work or innovation.
What is Social Cognitive Theory?
he unique way in which individuals acquire and maintain behavior, while also considering the social environment in which individuals perform the behavior.
Takes into account a person's past experiences, which factor into whether behavioral action will occur.
Experiences, influences, reinforcements, expectations, and expectancies all shape whether a person will engage in a specific behavior and the reasons why a person engages in that behavior.
Social Cognitivist Theory
Concepts of the Social Cognitive Theory( Glanz et al, 2002, p169.)
Factors physically external to the person; Provides opportunities and social support
Perception of the environment; correct misperceptions and promote healthful forms
Knowledge and skill to perform a given behavior; promote mastery learning through skills training
Anticipatory outcomes of a behavior; Model positive outcomes of healthful behavior
The values that the person places on a given outcome, incentives; Present outcomes of change that have functional meaning
: Personal regulation of goal-directed behavior or performance; Provide opportunities for self-monitoring, goal setting, problem solving, and self-reward
Behavioral acquisition that occurs by watching the actions and outcomes of others’ behavior; Include credible role models of the targeted behavior
Responses to a person’s behavior that increase or decrease the likelihood of recurrence; Promote self-initiated rewards and incentives
The person’s confidence in performing a particular behavior; Approach behavioral change in small steps to ensure success
Emotional coping responses-
Strategies or tactics that are used by a person to deal with emotional stimuli; provide training in problem solving and stress management
The dynamic interaction of the person, the behavior, and the environment in which the behavior is performed; consider multiple avenues to behavioral change, including environmental, skill, and personal change.
The idea that problem solving is at the heart of learning, thinking, and development.
People solve problems on their own and discover the consequences of their actions.
They reflect on past and recent experiences to create their own understanding during the learning process.
An active process that requires a change in the learner.
Not a typical lecture rather they act as an expert learner who can guide students into adopting cognitive strategies such as self testing, articulating understanding, asking probing questions, and reflection.
Organize information around ideas that engage the students interest, to assist students in developing new insights, and to connect them with their previous learning.
Students are encouraged to ask their own questions, carry out their own experiments, make their own analogies, and come to their own conclusions.
Being a constructivist teacher can be challenging. It requires the teacher to be willing to abandon familiar perspectives and practices and the adopt of new ones.