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Copy of U.S History Timeline

All 44 U.S presidents Organized into a Prezi
by

Cathy Fisher

on 14 January 2014

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Transcript of Copy of U.S History Timeline

Dirty Tricks in Politics
1. George Washington
1789-1797
2. John Adams
1797-1801
Federalist era
1789- 1801
federalist party dominated politics,
adoption of the constitution, and growing government
John Adams
Vice President: Thomas Jefferson
Secretary of state : Timothy Pickering
U.S. Treaty with Tripoli
Birth: 1735

Death:1826
3. Thomas Jefferson
1801-1809
Jeffersonian Era
1800- 1824
The election of 1800 brought about these two parties,with Adams representing the Federalists, and Jefferson representing the Democratic Republicans.

Thomas Jefferson
Birth: 1743
Death: 1826
Vice President: Aron Burr
Secretary of State: James Madison
Historical Significance
Revolutionary: represented Virginia as a delegate and was the war time governor of Virginia

Marbury vs Madison: established judicial review

Louisiana Purchase: Jefferson thought it was necessary and proper to purchase Louisiana from France

Embargo of 1807: during the Napoleonic wars american ships were being taken over by opposing countries testing american neutrality
to solve this the embargo act was formed

End of Alien and sedition acts: Jefferson repealed the alien and sedition acts because the were thought of as unconstitutional

Virginia/ Kentucky Resolution: James Madison and Thomas Jefferson wrote a letter to Kentucky and Virginia to repeal the alien and sedition acts.

Died on the 50th anniversary of independence a few hours before John Adams
James Madison
1809-1817
James Madison
Born: 1751
Died: 1836
Vice president: George Clinton
(1809- 11)
James Monroe
(1811-17)
Historical Significance
- ended embargo of 1807
the embargo was a terrible idea that hurt America so it was repealed by congress

- war of 1812
Britain had trade restrictions, imprisoned american sailors, supporting native American tribes, insulted the U.S.A

-Jackson wins battle of the battle of New Orleans

-Treaty of ghent
ended the war of 1 812 .
Era of good feelings
End of the Jeffersonian era
The era saw the collapse of the Federalist Party and an end to the bitter partisan disputes between it and the dominant Democratic-Republican party during the First Party System.
5. James Monroe
1817-1825
James Monroe
Birth: 1758
Death: 1831
Vice President: Danial Tompkins
Secretary of state: John Q. Adams
Historical Significance
Industrial/ Market Revolution: Innovation and inventions increase productivity in America
Panic 1819: post war economic boost ended, Mortagages foreclosed, and falling prices

Monroe Doctrine: Stated that if any foreign country attempts to reclaim their land in U.S it would be seen as acts of agression

Missouri Compromise: was passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30 north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri. To balance the number of "slave states" and "free states," the northern region of what was then Massachusetts was admitted into the United States as a free state to become Maine.
Adams-onis Treaty: Gave Florida to the U.S
6. John Q. Adams
1825-1829
John Q. Adams
Born: 1767
Death: 1848
Vice President: John C. Calhoun
Secretary of State: Henry Clay
Historical Significance
Corrupt Bargain 1829: Henry clay Stepped down from the presidential campaign so Adams could get more votes, in return he was appointed secretary of state. Andrew Jackson felt cheated
Tariff of Abomination: Designed to protect industry in northern united states. Southerners hated this.
S.C. exposition, v.p Calhoun Nullifying northern Tariffs: Argued the Northern Tariffs with Andrew Jackson that it was unconstitutional
7. Andrew Jackson
1829-1837
"old hickory"
Andrew Jackson
Born 1767
Died : 1845
Vice president: John C. Calhoun
Secretary of state: Martin Van Buren
Historical Significance
-Spoils system- Replaced Federal Employees with friends and loyalist
- kitchen Cabinet: Jackson took advice from friend and political supporters instead of his cabinent
-Worcester V. Georgia: held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Indians from being present on Indian lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional
Trail of Tears: Forced Relocation
of Native Americans.
Pet Banks: State banks that were elected by the u.s treasury were to have the government surplus funds
8. Martin Van Buren
" Martin Van Ruin"
1837-1841
Martin Van Buren
Born: 1782
Died: 1862
Vice President: Richard Johnson
Secretary of state: John Forsyth
Historical Significance
Amistad v. U.S: Article IX of Pinckney's Treaty was ruled off topic since the Africans in question were never legal property. They were not criminals, as the U.S. Attorney's Office argued, but rather "unlawfully kidnapped, and forcibly and wrongfully carried on board a certain vessel".[
Panic of 1837: Banks and businesses failed
Blocked TX annexation: America believed that annexation of Texas would cause war between them and Mexico
Was blamed by the Whig party because of his laid back life style

Voted against the admission of missouri as a slave state
appointed John McKinley as a supreme court justice
Nominated by the free soil party 1848
9. William H. Harrison
1841-1841
William H. Harrison
Born: 1773
Died: 1841
Vice President: John Tyler
Secretary of State: Daniel Webster
Historical Significance
Fought in the battle of tippecanoe
(war of 1812)
Log Cabin Campaign: first president to campaign actively for office
First Whig President
Longest Inauguration Speech

Died of a Fever
John Tyler became President
10. John Tyler
1841-1845
John Tyler
Born: 1790
Died: 1862
Vice President: None
Secretary of State: Daniel Webster
Historical Significance
First Presidential Successor
Annexed Texas
(1845) Texas had declared independence from Mexico in the Texas Revolution of 1836, although Mexico still refused to acknowledge it as a sovereign state. The people of Texas actively pursued joining the Union, but Jackson and Van Buren had been reluctant to inflame tensions over slavery by annexing another Southern state. Tyler, on the other hand, intended annexation to be the focal point of his administration.
Kicked out of Whig Party
First President to be Impeached: Vetoed a Tariff Bill
Opened door to western expansion
"His Accidency"
aristocrat
Independent Leader
Chosen as Harrison's vice president to gain more votes
James K. Polk
1845-1849
James K. Polk
Born: 1795
Death: 1849
Vice President: George Dallas
Secretary of state: James Buchanan
Historical Significance
Southern Democrat
Manifest destiny: Gods Will To Go West
Mexican-American War: this is what happened when we annexed Texas
Treaty of Guadalupe Haildalgo: Forced mexican cession of California and new Mexico and established the border between Mexico and U.S.
Gadsen Purchase: bought Arizona and New Mexico
Oregon Trail: The Oregon Trail was laid by fur trappers and traders from about 1811 to 1840 and was only passable on foot or by horseback
11.
12. Zachary Taylor
1849-1851
Zachary Taylor
born: 1784
death: 1850
Vice President: Millard Fillmore
Secretary of State: John M. Clayton
historical Significance
Created the department of interior
Created Native American Reservations
National Parks
recreation Wild Life
Wilmot Proviso: The Wilmot Proviso, one of the major events leading to the American Civil War, would have banned slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War or in the future
Died in office
13. Millard Fillmore
1851-1853
Millard Fillmore
Born: 1800
Death: 1874
Vice President: None
Secretary of state: Daniel Webster
Historical Significance
Whig
very free minded
compromise of 1850: was a package of five bills passed in the United States in September 1850, which defused a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War (1846–1848).
bleeding Kansas: was a series of violent political confrontations involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the neighboring towns of Missouri between 1854 and 1861.
Border Ruffians were pro-slavery activists from the slave state of Missouri, who in 1854 to 1860 crossed the state border into Kansas Territory, to force the acceptance of slavery there.
4.
14. Franklin pierce
1853-1857
Franklin pierce
Born : 1804
Death: 1869
Vice President: William R. King
Secretary of state: William L. Marcy
Historical Significance
Kansas-Nebraska act: created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing settlers in those territories to determine through Popular Sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory.
sought to display a traditional Democratic assertiveness.
pressured the United Kingdom to relinquish its interests along part of the Central American coast.
Pierce hired a full-time bodyguard
Douglas and several southern Senators successfully persuaded Pierce to support Douglas' plan.
The President that didn't really accomplish much
15. James Buchanan
1857-1861
James Buchanan
Born:1791
Death: 1868
Vice President: John beckinridge

Secretary of state: Lewis Cass
Historical Significance
Dredd Scott Case: Congress had no constitutional power to exclude slavery in the territories.
Buchanan considered the essence of good self-government to be founded on restraint.
Panic 1857: overbuilding by competing railroads, and rampant land speculation in the west.
Utah War: Mormons tryed to take over Utah but Buchanan stopped it by negotiaton
Partisan deadlock: Both Northern and Southern allowed Replublicans to become the majority
16. Abraham Lincoln
1861-1865
Abraham Lincoln
Born: 1809
Death: 1865
Vice President: Andrew Johnson
Secretary of State: William H. Seward
Historical Significance
Lincoln- Douglas debates: a series of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate for the Senate in Illinois, and Senator Stephen Douglas, the Democratic Party candidate.
Emancipation Proclamation: sought to persuade the states to accept compensated emancipation in return for their prohibition of slavery.
Gettysburg Adress: The Gettysburg Address was delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863
General Ulysses S. Grant's victories at the Battle of Shiloh and in the Vicksburg campaign impressed Lincoln and made Grant a strong candidate to head the Union Army.
re-elected in 1864
John Wilkes Booth was a well-known actor and a Confederate spy from Maryland killed lincoln
Andrew Johnson
1865-1869
Andrew Johnson
Born: 1808
Death: 1875
Vice President: none
Secretary of State: William H. Seward
Historical Significance
first to be overriden: T he civil rights act was overriden with 2/3rds majority
Civil Rights act: a United States federal law that was mainly intended to protect the civil rights of African-Americans, in the wake of the American Civil War.
Millitary districts: separated the southern states into military districts
Tensure of Office act: restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate.
was Impeached with only one vote shy
Reconstruction:bring the South back to normal
Ulysses S. Grant
1869-1877
Ulysses S. Grant
Born: 1822
Death: 1885
Vice President: Schuyler Colfax
Secretary of State: Hamilton Fish
Historical Signifance
worked with congress to readmit the last four Confederate states Virginia, Mississippi, Texas, and Georgia into the Union
Naturalizatioon act of 1870: allowed persons of African descent to become citizens of the United States.
15. Amendment: prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
Panic of 1873: a world-wide depression that started when the stock market in Vienna crashed in June 1873.
black Friday: a world-wide depression that started when the stock market in Vienna crashed in June 1873.
died of throat cancer at the age of 63
17.
18.
19. Rutherford B. Hayes
1877- 1881
Rutherford B. Hayes
Born: 1822
Death: 1893
Vice President: William Wheeler
Secretary of State: William M. Evarts
Historical Significance
Compromise 1877: purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election, pulled federal troops out of state politics in the South, and ended the Reconstruction Era.
Solid South: electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates from 1877
Replublican Party splits
Stalwarts: no change Change in government
Halfbreeds: little Change in government
Mugwumps: Change in government
Gilded Age: period of widespread economic growth as the United States jumped to the lead in industrialization ahead of Britain.
20. James A. Garfield
1881- 1881
James A. Garfield
born: 1831
Death: 1881
Vice President: Chester A. Arthur
Secretary of State: James G. Blaine
Presidency
Knights of labor: promoted the social and cultural uplift of the workingman.
Garfield's wife contracted malaria.
he was shot by Guiteau
doctors didn't find the bullet in Garfield.
Alexander Graham Bell specifically devised a metal detector to find the bullet
a Navy engineer, with the help of Simon Newcomb, installed in Garfield's room what may have been the world's first air conditioner.
Chester A. Arthur
1881-1885
Chester A. Arthur
Born: 1829
Death: 1886
Vice President: none
Secretary of State: James G. Blaine
Presidency
tried to lower tariff rates so the Government would not be embarrassed by annual surpluses of revenue.
Chinese exclusion act: Prohibited Chinese Immigration
Was a Stalwart but eventually he turned into a Mugwump
Died of a Kidney Disease
was appointed by grant for the collector of port of new york
Pendleton Civil service act: government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit.made it illegal to fire or demote government employees for political reasons and prohibits soliciting campaign donations on Federal government property
22. Grover Cleveland
1885- 1889
Grover Cleveland
Born: 1837
Death: 1908
Vice President: Thomas A. Hendricks
Secretary of State: Thomas F. Bayard
Presidency
1st Democrat since Buchanan
Dawes act: stimulate assimilation of Indians into American society
Hay market riot: bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square Chicago
American federation of labor: was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States.
vetoed hundreds of private pension bills for American Civil War veterans
campaigned in opposition to expansion and imperialism.
23. Benjamin Harrison
1889-1893
Benjamin Harrison
Born: 1833
Death: 1901
Vice President: Levi P. Morton
Secretary of state: James G. Blaine
Presidency
Sherman anti-trust act: prohibits certain business activities that federal government regulators deem to be anticompetitive, and requires the federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of being in violation.
Attempted to pass legislation to protect black Americans
Battle of wounded knee: Wounded Knee is considered the last major American Indian battle in the 19th century.
Had electricity installed in the White House for the first time by Edison General Electric Company,
Compromise over fishing rights
Overthrow against Queen Liliuokalani,
24. Grover Cleveland
1893-1897
Grover Cleveland
Born: 1837
Death: 1908
Vice President: Aldai E. Stevenson
Secretary of State: Walter Q. Gresham
Presidency
1st president to have two consecutive, terms that are not linear
Rejected the idea of annexation and encouraged the Congress to continue the American tradition of non-intervention
Morgan Report: U.S. Congressional investigation into the events surrounding the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom,
Had a tumor in his mouth
admitted six states into the union Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming
is on the 1000 doller bill
25. William Mckinley
1897-1901
William McKinley
Born: 1843
Death: 1901
Vice president: Garret A. Hobart
Secretary of State: John Sherman
Presidency
Cuba-Spain war: rebels in Cuba had waged an intermittent campaign for freedom from Spanish colonial rule.
proposed to open negotiations with Spain on the basis of Cuban liberation and Puerto Rican annexation, with the final status of the Philippines subject to further discussion
Open door policy: concept in foreign affairs, which usually refers to the policy in 1899 allowing multiple Imperial powers access to China, with none of them in control of that country.
Dingley act:introduced by U.S. Representative Nelson Dingley, Jr., of Maine, raised tariffs in United States to counteract the Wilson–Gorman Tariff Act of 1894, which had lowered rates.
spoken out against lynching while governor, and most African Americans who could vote supported him in 1896.
Was assassinated by anarchists
26. Theodore Roosevelt
1901-1909
Theordore Roosevelt
Born: 1858
Death: 1919
Vice President: Charles W. Fairbanks
Secretary of state: John Hay
Presidency
Succeeded after McKinley's death
Negotiated with the united mine wirkewrs when they went on strike
Roosevelt Corollary: allows the United States to "exercise international policy power"
Meat Inspection Act: The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 banned misleading labels and preservatives that contained harmful chemicals.
Pure Food and Drug Act: The Pure Food and Drug Act banned food and drugs that are impure or falsely labeled from being made, sold, and shipped.
Was Part of the "Bull Moose" party
chose not to run for another term in 1908, and supported William Taft for the presidency, instead of Fairbanks.
27. William H. Taft
1909-1913
William H. Taft
Born: 1857
Death: 1930
Vice President: James S. Sherman
Secretary of state: Philander C. Knox
Presidency
Created the united states chamber of commerce: counterbalance to the rise of the labor movement at the time
proposed income taxes for corporations and a constitutional amendment to remove the apportionment requirement for taxes on incomes from property
endorsed Booker T. Washington's program for uplifting the African American race
Dollar Diplomacy: further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.
Was appointed chief justice
Admitted new mexico to the union
28.Woodrow Wilson
1913-1921
Woodrow Wilson
Born: 1856
Death: 1924
Vice President: Thomas R. Marshall
Secretary of state: William J. Bryan
Presidency
Clayton Antitrust Act : specified particular prohibited conduct
spent 1914 through to the beginning of 1917 trying to keep America out of the war in Europe.
made a declaration of neutrality in 1914.
The Fourteen Points: ranged from the most generic principles like the prohibition of secret treaties to such detailed outcomes as the creation of an independent Poland with access to the sea
Revenue Act:re-Imposed the federal income tax following the ratification of the sixteen amendment
intended the Fourteen Points as a means toward ending the war and achieving an equitable peace for all the nations
29. Warren G. Harding
1921-1923
Roaring 20's: decade of great economic growth and widespread prosperity driven by government growth policies, a boom in construction, and the rapid growth of consumer goods such as automobiles.
Warren G. Harding
Born: 1865
Death: 1923
Vice President: Calvin Coolidge
Secretary of State: Charles E. Hughes
Presidency
called a joint session of Congress to address matters that he deemed of national and urgent importance
Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 : established the framework for the modern federal budget.
signed a series of bills regulating agriculture.
Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921: defined the Federal Aid Road program to develop an immense national highway system.
Sheppard-Towner act: provided federal funding for maternity and child care.
"Ohio Gang" scandal: appointees used their new powers to exploit their positions for personal gain.
" Teapot Dome" scandal: everyone involved was ultimately convicted in 1931 of accepting bribes and illegal no-interest personal loans in exchange for the leasing of public oil fields to business associates
30. Calvin Coolidge
1923-1929
Calvin Coolidge
Born: 1872
Death: 1933
Vice President: None
Secretary of State: Charles E. Hughes
Presidency
Immigration act: United States federal law that limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country
World War Adjusted Compensation Act: United States federal law passed on May 19, 1924, that granted a benefit to veterans of American military service in World War I.
Revenue Act of 1924:cut federal tax rates and established the U.S. Board of Tax Appeals
McNary–Haugen Farm Relief Act: never became law, was a highly controversial plan in the 1920s to subsidize American agriculture by raising the domestic prices of farm products.
Great Mississippi Flood of 1927: worst natural disaster to hit the Gulf Coast until Hurricane Katrina in 2005
Coolidge spoke in favor of the civil rights of African Americans and Catholics
Great Depression: United States economy first went into an economic recession. Although the country spent two months with declining GDP, it was not until the Wall Street Crash of October, 1929 that the effects of a declining economy were felt, and a major worldwide economic downturn ensued.
31. Herbert Hoover
1929-1933
Herbert Hoover
Born: 1874
Death: 1964
Vice President: Charles Curtis
Secretary of State: Frank B. Kellogg
Presidency
Federal Bureau of Prisons: administration of the federal prison system
Bureau of Indian Affairs: agency of the federal government of the United States within the U.S. Department of the Interior. It is responsible for the administration and management of 55,700,000 acres (225,000 km2) of land held in trust by the United States for Native Americans in the United States
believed that African-Americans and other races could improve themselves with education and wanted the races assimilated into white culture
Great Depression: feared that too much government intervention would undermine long-term individuality and self-reliance, which he considered essential to the nation's future.
Bonus Army: Thousands of World War I veterans and their families demonstrated and camped out in Washington, DC, during June 1932, calling for immediate payment of a bonus that had been promised by the World War Adjusted Compensation Act in 1924 for payment in 1945.
32. Franklin D. Roosevelt
1933-1945
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Born: 1882
Death: 1945
Vice President: John N. Garner
Henry A. Wallace
Harry S. Truman
Secretary of state: Cordell Hull
Presidency
First New Deal: "First 100 Days" concentrated on the first part of his strategy: immediate relief. From March 9 to June 16, 1933, he sent Congress a record number of bills, all of which passed easily.
Second New Deal: These measures included the Works Progress Administration, Social Security Act, and Wagner Act
Munich Agreement:settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of Czechoslovakia's areas along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers
Pearl Harbor: Empire of Japan attacks U.S,
Dday: U.S as well as other contries storm the beaches of normandy
Got re-elcted for a 4th term
Died due to poor health
33. Harry S. Truman
1945-1953
Harry S. Truman
Born: 1884
Death: 1972
Vice President: None
Secretary of State: George C. Marshall
Presidency
Truman Doctrine: international relations policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry Truman in a speech
Marshall Plan: American program to aid Europe, in which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism
Berlin airlift : Soviet Union blocked access to the three Western-held sectors of Berlin.
Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempted to assassinate Truman at Blair House.
submitted a civil rights agenda to Congress that proposed creating several federal offices devoted to issues such as voting rights and fair employment practices.
Army units became racially integrated
34. Dwight D. Eisenhower
1953-1961
Cold War: a sustained state of political and military tension between powers in the Western Bloc, dominated by the United States with NATO among its allies, and powers in the Eastern Bloc, dominated by the Soviet Union along with the Warsaw Pact.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Born: 1890
Death: 1969
Vice President: Richard Nixon
Secretary of State: John F. Dulles
Presidency
Interstate Highway System: network of freeways that forms a part of the National Highway System of the United States.
Domino theory: promoted at times by the United States government, and speculated that if one state in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect.
Soviet launch of Sputnik in 1957, gaining the Cold War enemy enormous prestige around the world.
Eisenhower Doctrine: a country could request American economic assistance or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state
U.S. one-man U-2 spy plane was reportedly shot down at high altitude over the airspace of the Soviet Union. The flight was made to gain photo intelligence before the scheduled opening of an East–West summit conference which had been scheduled in Paris, 15 days later.
begun the process of desegregating the Armed Forces in 1948, actual implementation had been slow
35. John F. Kennedy
1961-1963
John F. Kennedy
Born: 1917
Death: 1963
Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson
Secretary of State: Dean Rusk
Presidency
Bay of Pigs Invasion : intention was to invade Cuba and instigate an uprising among the Cuban people in hopes of removing Castro from power
Cuban Missile Crisis: U-2 spy planes took photographs of intermediate-range ballistic missile sites being built in Cuba by the Soviets.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: In their Vienna summit meeting in June 1961, Khrushchev and Kennedy reached an informal understanding against nuclear testing, but the Soviet Union began testing nuclear weapons that September.
"New Frontier": promised federal funding for education, medical care for the elderly, economic aid to rural regions, and government intervention to halt the recession.
Kennedy ended a period of tight fiscal policies, loosening monetary policy to keep interest rates down and encourage growth of the economy
was assassinated in Dallas, Texas
Assassin was killed by Jack Ruby on November 24, before he could be indicted or tried.
36. Lyndon B. Johnson
1963-1969
Lyndon B. Johnson
Born: 1908
Death: 1973
Vice President: Hubert Humphrey
Secretary of State: Dean Rusk
Presidency
Civil Rights Act of 1964: outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965: abolished the National Origins Formula that had been in place in the United States since the Emergency Quota Act.
Revenue Act of 1964: Individual income tax rates were cut across the board by approximately 20%.
Gun Control Act of 1968: regulates the firearms industry and firearms owners.
increasingly focused on the American military effort in Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: a joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.
37. Richard Nixon
1969-1974
Richard Nixon
Born: 1913
Death: 1994
Vice President: Gerald Ford
Secretary of State: Henry A. Kissinger
Presidency
madman theory: attempted to make the leaders of other countries think Nixon was mad, and that his behavior was irrational and volatile.
maintained close relations with the Cuban-American exile community through his friend, Bebe Rebozo, who often suggested ways of irritating Castro.
Nixon used the improving international environment to address the topic of nuclear peace.
harassment of activist groups and political figures, using the FBI, CIA, and the Internal Revenue Service.
Saturday Night Massacre: executive dismissal of independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox, and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus
light of his loss of political support and the near-certainty of impeachment, Nixon resigned the office of the presidency on August 9, 1974, after addressing the nation on television the previous evening
38. Gerald R. Ford
1974-1977
Gerald R. Ford
Born: 1913
Death: 2006
Vice President: Nelson Rockefeller
Secretary of State: Henry Kissinger
Presidency
Pardoned Nixon
gave a televised broadcast
The federal budget ran a deficit every year Ford was President
Ford continued the détente policy with both the Soviet Union and China, easing the tensions of the Cold War
Paris Peace Accords:declared a cease fire across both North and South Vietnam, and required the release of American prisoners of war.
a follower of Charles Manson, pointed a Colt .45-caliber handgun at Ford
39.James Carter
1977-1981
James Carter
Born: 1924
Vice President: Walter Mondale
Secretary of state: Cyrus Vance
Presidency
delivered a televised speech declaring that the U.S. energy crisis during the 1970s was the moral equivalent of war.
declared a federal emergency in the neighborhood of Love Canal in the city of Niagara Falls, New York. More than 800 families were evacuated from the neighborhood, which was built on top of a toxic waste landfill.
deregulated the American beer industry by opening access of the home-brew market to the craft brewers, making it legal to sell malt, hops, and yeast to American home brewers for the first time since the effective 1920 beginning of Prohibition in the United States
longest-living post-presidential team in American history
Camp David Accords: signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following thirteen days of secret negotiations at Camp David
40. Ronald Reagan
1981-1989
Ronald Reagan
Born: 1911
Death: 2004
Vice President: George H. W. Bush

Secretary of State: Alexander Haig
Presidency
Reaganomics:policies are commonly associated with supply-side economics, referred to as trickle-down economics by political opponents.
accelerating a reversal from the policy of détente which began in 1979 following the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
declared a war on drugs and advocated more militant policies
Immigration Reform and Control Act:Act of Congress which reformed United States immigration law.
During the Reagan administration, senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, the subject of an arms embargo.
recognized the change in the direction of the Soviet leadership with Mikhail Gorbachev, and shifted to diplomacy, with a view to encourage the Soviet leader to pursue substantial arms agreements
told Mr. Gorbachev to tear down a wall
41. George H. W. Bush
1989-1993
George H. W Bush
Born: 1924
Vice President: Dan Quayle
Secretary of State: James Baker
Presidency
The Civil Rights Act of 1991: limited the rights of employees who had sued their employers for discrimination.Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009
START I: Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms
Gulf War : led by Saddam Hussein, invaded its oil-rich neighbor to the south, Kuwait
North American Free Trade Agreement: agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
Vomited on Japanese Prime minister
issued a series of pardons during his last days in office
Cold War Ends
42. William J. Clinton
1993-2001
William J. Clinton
Born: 1946
Vice President: Al Gore
Secretary of State: Madeline K. Albright
Presidency
Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993: employers to provide employees job-protected and unpaid leave for qualified medical and family reasons
plan to raise taxes to cap the budget deficit
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993: federal law that was enacted by the 103rd United States Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton.
Brady Bill: imposed a five-day waiting period on handgun purchases
launched the first official White House website, whitehouse.gov
Lewinsky scandal : Had sexual relations with that woman
Capturing Osama bin Laden had been an objective of the United States government from the presidency of Bill Clinton until bin Laden's death in 2011
43. George W. Bush
2001-2009
George W. Bush
Born: 1946
Vice President: Dick Chenney
Secretary of State: Condoleeza Rice
Presidency
Bush took office during a period of economic recession in the wake of the bursting of the Dot-com bubble.
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 : reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which included Title I, the government's flagship aid program for disadvantaged students
declared a state of emergency in Louisiana on August 27
support for stronger economic and political relationship with Latin America, especially Mexico, and a reduction of involvement in "nation-building" and other small-scale military engagements.
began his presidency with approval ratings near 50%. After the September 11 attacks, Bush gained an approval rating of 90%
44. Barack Obama
2009-
Barack Obama
Born: 1961
Vice President: Joe Biden
Secretary of State: Hillary Clinton
Presidency
Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009: amends civil rights act of 1964
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: economic stimulus package enacted by the 111th United States Congress
called for Congress to pass legislation reforming health care in the United States
announced a federal investigation and formed a bipartisan commission to recommend new safety standards, after a review by Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar and concurrent Congressional hearings.
orders and outlined a series of sweeping proposals regarding gun control
announced that combat operations in Iraq would end within 18 months
saw when seal team six killed Osama bin Laden
Citations
U.S History Notes
U.S History textbook
presidential timeline
http://www.whitehouse.gov
http://www.cnn.com/
History Channel.com
Netflix.com
"As Mankind becomes more liberal, they
will be more apt to allow that all those who conduct themselves as worthy members of the community are equally entitled to the protections of civil government. I hope ever to see America among the foremost nations of justice and liberality."
-- George Washington
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