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Copy of Shah 'Abbas
Transcript of Copy of Shah 'Abbas
The Greatest Safavid Leader
About Shah 'Abbas
Shah 'Abbas I
was born on
January 27, 1571 and died at the age of 57 on January 19, 1629.
He was the
fifth Shah of the Safavid Empire
ruled from 1588 to 1629
. 'Abbas is credited with
reforming the government and strengthening the Persian military
. 'Abbas also was the leader who
forced the Ottomans and the Uzbek out of Persia.
After the expulsion of the Persian rivals, Shah 'Abbas
encouraged artistic movements
in the Safavid capital of Isfahan.
Shah 'Abbas is known for his "beautiful" mustache.
Mohammad Khodabanda was 'Abbas' father. After his death, 'Abbas decided that the
Safavid Empire needed a standing military
instead of calling upon men during a time of need. This army was made of
Georgians, Armenians, and Circassians. These people had been brought to Persia as prisoners.'Abbas had these prisoners converted to Islam. He called these men who he considered loyal his
s, which means slaves. The
s were promoted over time.
Loss of Lands
While trying to form a proper Safavi military, 'Abbas suffered the
loss of Persian lands to the Ottomans, Uzbeks, and Mughals. Due to the locations of the Ottoman and the Uzbek Empires, 'Abbas was faced with having to fight two wars at once. Obviously, this was not possible. So he signed a peace treaty with the Ottomans between 1589- 1590 lands from the west and north were given to the Ottoman Empire. Within the next 10 years, Shah 'Abbas was unable to control land loss to the Uzbeks and the Mughals.
Regain of Lands
After the fifth Shah was able to form a proper military, the Safavids were able to
regain lands lost to the Uzbeks. In 1598, 'Abbas led a major victory in which he gained back the territory of Khorasan from the Uzbeks. Starting in 1602, he was able to gain back lands taken over by the Ottomans.
By: Katherine Crain and Dania Shoaib
The Capital of Isfahan
After winning territory back, 'Abbas
changed the Safavi capital from Kazvin to Isfahan.
Under his rule, Isfahan was transformed into a city full of
artistic Mosques, schools, and even public baths.
The layout was changed to accommodate multiple streets and a town square. Isfahan became a thriving city.
Ambassadors from European countries, merchants and traders, and wealthy men came to this spectacular city.
Portuguese, English and Dutch came to trade.
Under 'Abbas' rule,
reached an all time high.
became a major industry. Today Persia is known for its beautiful rugs. Also,
became popular in the Safavid Empire. The royalty of the Safavid Empire
took control of the silk industry.
Some more examples of industry in Persia were
manuscripts, bookbinding, and ceramics.
The Safavid Empire is known for its
Safavid Culture, the Chinese, and the Economy
During Shah 'Abbas' reign, Safavid
culture was at its peak
. The Shah hired
potters to work on tiles and ceramics. Tiles were added to the
domes of mosques.
Public locations were full of arches and gardens. Thus,
Isfahan became one of the most spectacular cities of the world during the 1600s.
The culture of the Safavid Empire led to
economic success. Traditional products were sold; this led to wealth for the Safavid Empire.
The Safavid Empire lasted until 1722.
It's Not All Rainbows
It is evident that the fifth Shah of the Safavid Empire brought the empire to a golden age. However, 'Abbas is also known for
being paranoid about assassination and heirs
. 'Abbas had those who he thought would try to overthrow him blinded or killed. He had one of his son killed and two others blinded. He also had his father and brothers blinded and imprisoned. The irony is that 'Abbas actually overthrew his father. 'Abbas also had many princes forced away to live with women and eunuchs. Due to his extreme anxiety, the fifth Shah died without an heir.
Shi'ism: The Religion of
the Safavid Empire
A distinguishing factor between the Safavid empire and the Ottoman and Mughal Empires is the
religious sect of the people. The Ottoman and Mughal Empires were of Sunni majority, while the
Safavid Empire was of Shia majority.
It was 'Abbas' goal to make Shi'ism the popular religion in what is now Iran. Under his reign, the Safavid Empire did not have much religious tolerance. He had Shi'ism portrayed in architecture throughout the empire. Also, he had holy Shia shrines renovated.
Shah 'Abbas also made the shrine of Imam 'Ali ibn Musa al-Reza a location of pilgrimage for Shias, just as
in Mecca is for Sunnis. He had the pilgrimage sight changed due to Ottoman control of pilgrimage sights in present day Mecca and Iraq. (Imam Reza was the eighth Shia Imam and is the only Shia Imam buried in Iran, therefore he holds great importance in the eyes of Shias in Iran.)
'Abbas' Death and Heir
Shah 'Abbas I died on January 19, 1629 in the Mazadaran Province in current day Iran. After his death, the empire was stable. He was succeeded by Shah Safi, his grandson.
Savory, Roger M. "Abbas I (Safavid Shah of Persia)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 3 Sept. 2014. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.
. . . . .
"Shah Abbas- the Image of a Ruler." British Museum. Trustees of the British Museum, n.d. Web. 29
Safavid Empire- was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Persia (modern Iran) after the fall of the Sassanian Empire - following the Muslim conquest of Persia in the seventh century A.D- ruled by shahs- ruled from 1501 to 1722
Mughal Empire- a Muslim empire extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and ruled by a dynasty- Taj Mahal was built during this dynasty