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OCW LU1 MDP10208 Pharmacology: Neurotransmitter

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Wahizul Muhammad

on 28 November 2016

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Transcript of OCW LU1 MDP10208 Pharmacology: Neurotransmitter

1. Synthesis
Tyrosine L-dopa Dopamine Noradrenaline Adrenaline
3. Release
Release: exocytosis of neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft
need for calcium release

Seven Processes
Summarizing the seven processes, we have:

Synthesis
Transport/Storage
Release/breakdown/exocytosis (of any neurotransmitter leaking from the vesicles)
Binding
Reuptake
Diffusion
Inactivation

Seven Processes in Neurotransmitter Action
2. Transport/Storage
Transport/Storage (in vesicles, docked at presynaptic membrane)
Role of monoamine transporter proteins - pump neurotransmitters into vesicles
Vesicles are targeted to dock at presynaptic membrane

Objectives
At the end of the teaching session, you should be able to:

explain the seven processes involved in neurotransmitter action: systhesis, storage, release, receptor binding, reuptake, diffusion and inactivation.
explain (for each of the seven processes) the possible physiological effects after administration of a chemical that can disrupt that process.
Examples of neurotransmitters are

Amino acids e.g. glutamate,
Biogenic amines e.g. noradrenaline, acetylcholine,
Neuropeptides e.g. Substance P,
Gases e.g. nitric oxide

Naming of receptor and nerve: both follows name of neurotransmitter
e.g. Neurotransmitter: acetylcholine.
Receptor: cholinergic
Nerve: cholinergic

4. Binding
Binding of neurotransmitter to postsynaptic (or presynaptic) receptors

5. Reuptake
Reuptake of neurotransmitters into presynaptic neuron through transporters at plasma membrane


6. Diffusion
Neurotransmitters diffuse away from the synapse

7. Inactivation
Neurotransmitters inactivated by enzymes

Drugs Interfere with Neurotransmission
Drugs can affect synapses at a variety of sites and in a variety of ways, including:
1. Increasing number of impulses
2. Release NT from vesicles with or without impulses
3. Block reuptake or block receptors
4. Produce more or less NT
5. Prevent vesicles from releasing NT


e.g acetylcholine acetate + choline
acetylcholinesterase
What is a synapse?
Neurotransmitters

There are dozens of different neurotransmitters
(NT) in the neurons of the body.

NTs can be either excitatory or inhibitory

Each neuron generally synthesizes and releases a
single type of neurotransmitter

Noradrenaline
/
old drugs like metyrosine, reserpine
botox (botulinium toxin)
cocaine
neostigmine for treatment of myasthenia gravis
A synapse is the “gap” between the axon of
one nerve and the dendrite of the next one.
The average neuron has 1,000 synapses
with other neurons.
Image online, courtesy Weber State University. PD
Take a look at this video
Neuron
Neuron
Here's another video
That's all!

Thank you...
Full transcript