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European Colonization of the New World
Transcript of European Colonization of the New World
1500 - 1650
Trading for exotic goods from the old world was costly across land routes. Infrastructure and safety were questionable. Henry of Portugal had discovered a way to obtain similar goods without dealing with the old world. Columbus made this blue print possible on an enormous scale in America.
Also military and ship technology had become so superior to the old world that trade routes in the Indian Ocean and Spheres of Influence could be stolen with small amounts of European Ships. Europeans only had to control the port's infrastructure to exact taxes and have access to the exotic goods they desired. They did this in Africa, Arabia, India, Indonesia, and South East Asia. Philippines were the only actual colony for Spain in the old world.
Both these methods of income made kings enormously rich as they pursued Mercantilism outside their nation states and battled with each other over world trade supremacy.
Spanish Colonies in Mexico
and the Caribbean
Since riches were discovered Conquistadors are no longer allowed to explore for their own wealth by the king.
Finding the perfect climate for exotic crops the Spanish build plantations and use surviving Natives for labor. (Encomienda) When these slaves die thy are freed, paid for small jobs (Mita) and Africans are imported. Silver mines are also opened and the silver is packed by Burro to the west coast for transport to Spain.
Because of profit, the king micro manages the plantations and no Spaniards can own private property. All are paid as Bureaucrats. Spanish Mix with native women and African Women and a new population of Mestizos and Creoles are born. Racial caste system is developed and European infrastructure is created. Port cities are most important on East and West coast.
Roman Catholicism and Spanish Government are introduced along with Spanish language and European crops and animals.
Portuguese in Brazil
Portuguese begin food and spice plantations micro managed by the king. No private property Goods are shipped back to Portugal for sale. Africans are imported for labor. A racial caste system develops. Roman Catholic religion, Portuguese language, European infrastructure. European crops. Disease, and animals introduced.
Spanish in the Andes
Spanish Establish Ports on the West coast of South America and use natives and Africans in Silver and gold strip mines. Specie is transported by Burro over the Inca Highway to the ports and shipped across the Pacific ocean.
Natives, and then Africans are used as labor. Death rate is out of control so massive amounts of Africans have to be imported. None survive.
Spanish Language, Roman Catholicism, European infrastructure are introduced. Disease too. European crops and animals are introduced.
British Dutch, and French in North America
Spanish and Portuguese had taken all the mines and good land in the tropics. Kings of France, Netherlands, and England were not willing to spend money on North American ventures because the only resources were wood and fur. Kings only wanted to find a Northwest Passage to the old world to beat the Spanish.
However, kings did allow private companies, traders, and religious groups to pay their way across the Atlantic with the understanding that Joint stock companies paid taxes on profits.
Religious groups did not pay taxes, nor did they import Africans or enslave natives since they were only building towns. Private Companies imported Africans to work on plantations. No race mixing occurred with natives since townships were permanent.
European language, protestant religion, European crops, animals, and disease were introduced.
Ships leaving Europe stopped in West Africa to Purchase slaves from West African Kings. These ships were ballasted with guns or salt.
Upon arriving in America the ships were filled with food and sent back across the Atlantic or to the Pacific coast to be filled with specie.
East African Spheres of Influence
After winning naval battles with the Ottoman Empire the Europeans parked war ships off the coast of Islamic trading cities and taxed all imports and exports. They did not colonize the cities.
Ships returning from the Pacific could resupply, trade, and repair in these ports.
Indian Spheres of Influence
After winning naval battles with the Arabs, Persians, and Indians, Europeans set up spheres in Influence in all three places and controlled the spice trade through spheres of influence. Europeans DID NOT colonize.
Europeans monopolized all Indian ocean trade, even though their ships did not carry the goods. They taxed all goods being loaded and unloaded in ports.
Besides the Dutch Spice Islands, The only place in the old world that was colonized by the Europeans. The Philippines provided a safe port and a resupply and maintenance station to the Spanish on their world wide trek. It was also a home base for Spanish Trade with China, since China would only take Silver and Gold in trade.
Spanish language and Roman Catholicism introduced.
Dutch Spice Islands
Colonized by the Dutch to grow Spices. They enslaved the local natives. Spices were grown by the Dutch East Indie Corporation which became the largest and richest private company in the world, monopolizing the spice trade.
Dutch language introduced, but religion still remained Islamic.
Return to Europe
Ships returning to Europe brought immense luxuries. In Spain/Portugal these luxuries went to the King and the people he contracted to build ships and weapons. Little money circulated among common people.
In England/France/Netherlands, joint stock companies got rich and circulated the wealth to common investors and small businesses that supported them.
From the new world, Africa, and Asia came new words, new foods, new technologies, new animals, and new businesses.