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Period 4 Review WHAP
Transcript of Period 4 Review WHAP
Why PORT and SP first to ATL?
Geo: coasts farther into ATL and closer to AFR.
Patriotism: Catholics monarch retook SP from Muslims, want to go farther.
Geo: wanted to bypass IT trade in Med. w/ East. So looked for alt. route.
PORT in AFR w/ Henry the Navigator (prince/school). Dias passed Cape of Good Hope, De Gama made it to IND.
Trading-Post Empire in Africa and Indian Ocean.
SP had to go W. b/c other routes taken by PORT and IT.
Columbus 1492, GGG --> West Indies. Then EVERYONE WANTS IN.
Effects of Columbian Exchange
Def: Two-way exchange of new animals, plants, diseases and people.
Animals and Plants from Euro- horses, pigs, chickens, cows, sugarcane, bananas, wheat, and rice. --> Population growth
Horses and sugarcane had biggest impact: changed culture of most Native American groups and sugarcane plantation --> slaves from AFR.
Sugarcane plantations in Brazil started the slave trade to Americas. --> SP investing in "slave coast"
African slaves brought okra and rice to Americas.
Animals and Plants from Americas: potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, corn, cocoa, chili peppers.
Potatoes were popular b/c easy to store and grow. Maize/corn --> staple in AFR and CH --> Population growth.
Diseases: Smallpox killed around 90% of Americas pop'ln. Depopulation --> more land for Euro to conquer and settle.
People: Africans forced to the Americas as slaves, Indentured servants from Euro, and voluntary migrants. Religions also blended as newly converted Catholics had little rel. instruction.
Precious Metals: Gold --> SP, but Silver from Peru = $ for CH.
First global network of exchange!
Land Based Empires
Economics of Maritime Empires.
Economies: plantations and competed in global market, 13 English Colonies: fish and tobacco...
Atlantic System/Triangular Trade: sugar/rum/cod --> Euro --> trade for silver/rum/manufactured goods --> buy slaves in AFR --> slaves to Americas.
Mercantilism: raw materials --> manufactured goods, favorable balance of trade, more $ more power, tariffs and bus. w/ private companies (EIC).
More than halfway there!
Factors --> crossing ATL
Advances in ship design and navigation
Caravel/Fluyt from Europe based on Asian maritime tech.
Desire to spread Christianity
motivated by comp. from Islam and Protestants, esp. in SP and PORT (reconquista), and focused on S. and E. Asia.
Trade ($$$) increased wealth led to Renaissance, want to capitalize w/ Americas.
Why not E. Euro? Arctic Ocean icy, not close to ATL, RU expanding into Siberia.
Why not China? Zheng He (fun fact: he's Muslim) treasure fleet (junks) ended b/c cost.
Period 4 Review
Early Modern Era c.1450-c. 1750
Harty, AP World History
Developments in Christianity
L. Amer synthesized Catholic and local traditional faiths. MX: saints to on responsibilities of precolonial gods. Caribbean: African blend w/ Christianity= voodoo/Vodun
Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther 95 Theses challenged the Catholic Church (ex indulgences). Broke from Cath. Church to form Lutheranism.
King Henry VIII (8) created Anglican Church.
Catholic/Counter Reformation: reformed a little, but Jesuits are most important effect. They began "army of the Pope" and led mission movements in L. Amer.
Jesuits used for academia and science in China-- marked turning point in global leadership in tech from East to West.
SciRev: Monarchs put $ into sci research to gain new tech for dominating world markets. Effects: reduced faith in divine explanations of life, depended on science to answer challenges --> Enlightenment (bridges early modern and modern eras).
Developments in Labor Systems
Peasant Labor increased in RU, IND, and CH b/c of increased need of goods for trade.
RU --> Siberia for furs.
IND- hand-woven cotton.
CH- silk production
Chattel Slavery intensified in AFR
ATL w/ Europeans, MED/IND Ocean w/ Muslim Arabs b/c of increasing need for labor in plantation economy.
Sugar plantations in Brazil- 3 yr life expectancy
Loss of AFR men greatly declined pop'ln and decreased patriarchy.
Continuity: use of female slaves in Indian Ocean.
Encomienda, Hacienda,and Mita Systems: use the natives who survived disease as slave labor. Mita mostly in silver mines. Complaints --> end in early 1700s.
Indentured servitude: hired Europeans to work for no pay for around 7 years. Some learn a trade, but after 7 years they are freed.
Land Based Empires vs. Maritime Empires
expanded over land (Qing, Russia, Gunpowder Empires).
expanded over oceans to create new empires (Spain, Britain, Portugal, France, Netherlands in Americas).
In new empires, have creation of the casta system and Republica de Indios with separate laws/courts... but just led into more labor.
European monarchs increased power via Divine Right of Kings and developed Absolutism... except for BR which limited their monarchs.
expand with key trading cities/ports along trade routes (Portugal and Britain in Indian Ocean). Netherlands take over spice trade in SE Asia.
These struggled to expand into maritime empires because of the Ashanti in Africa and Mughal rule in India.
They also struggled to take over trade routes from the Omani Middle East.
Change in Japan
Tokugawa JP: PORT, SP, HOL, and BR sent missionaries and silver to JP. At first JP welcomed Europe (interested in their guns). Tokugawa's form Shogunate and kick out Europe (except one Dutch ship).
Tokugawa Ieyasu expelled European influence.
Also created salaried samurais (less of them) and made them more loyal to the shogun over regional daimyos.
Led to samurai revolts.
Shoutout to the Empires who Fell during the Early Modern Era
Aztec: 14th century power empire who expanded through conquest and tribute system. Rulers descendents from gods (ancient Egypt) and loved human sacrifice. Fell due to internal pressure from conquered people and arrival of Europeans w/ weapons and disease.
Inca: c. 1450- c. 1550 in S. America along Andes MTNs. Expanded through conquest and tribute system. Also had emperor from the gods. Conquered people had to assimilate to Incan culture. Also had Incan Socialism. Record-keeping = quipu knotted strings. Fell due to internal strife and Europeans.
Byzantine: slow decline due to constant war w/ Muslim forces. Hagia Sophia changed from Greek Orthodox to a mosque. Constantinople = Istanbul.
European Exploration E X P A N D S
New Political and Economic Elite Groups
Pol. Elites China: Manchus defeated Ming and are new elite ruling class --> Qing Dynasty (1644-1912). Minority, but adopted Confucianism, bureaucracy, and mandate of heaven.
Pol. Elites L. Amer: know the Casta Pyramid.
Pol. Elites in N.Amer: 13 colonies less racial blending. Euro elites= large landowners, and farmers, craftspeople, and indentured servants below them.
Economic elites in Europe: entrepreneurs who did financially well improved their social status. CH still viewed merchants as lowly, but they had a ton of money to ease their pain.
Middle Men and Silver
W. Europe wanted access to Asian goods.
W. Europe wanted to bypass the Italian monopoly and Ottoman Empire.
W. Europe wanted to trade with Asia (China especially).
China wanted... SILVER because of law that made taxes paid in silver only.
Europeans finally found an item that the Chinese wanted. Get to be Middle Men of trade.
FIRST GLOBAL TRADE.
Europeans put all the silver into China...
China keeps it all... SILVER DRAIN.
China begins to reign in exploration after Zheng He in the Ming Dynasty to shore up internal defenses.
Ming fall to nomadic Manchu from the North.
QING Dynasty formed.
Maritime Empires formed in Europe.
Mughal and Ottoman and Safavid
The Gunpowder Empires
Manchu elite separated from Han Chinese.
No diffusion of language
Expanded China and brought in tribute states (orange on the map).
Emperors still used Confucianism within government, to help justify their rule and earn the mandate of heaven.
Civil Service Exam
After Mongol Rule, interacted more with Europe.
Peter the Great westernized Russia.
Catherine the Great expanded Russia to its largest extent into Siberia.
Diseases hurt Siberia similar to Americas.
The Ottoman and Safavid Empires
Ottoman Empire takes over Byzantine Empire (fall of Constantinople in 1453).
Most famous Turkic ruler- Suleiman the Magnificent.
Reformed laws, expanded territory.
Ottoman Devshirme system- taken from Balkan Christian boys. Become trained in Islam and government. Most elite become Janissary fighting force.
Known for their miniature paintings which promoted their rulers and advancements in medicine.
Safavid Empire takes over Persia (modern day Iran)
Isfahan (capital) becomes center for trade and Muslim culture.
Will have constant conflict with the Ottoman Empire of their Sunni-Shia divide. Common fighting on their shared border. Weakened them and made easier for Europe to move in.
The Mughal Empire
Muslim rule in India
Traces lineage from Mongols, influenced their name.
Local elites- Zamindars as regional governors and tax collectors. As emperor lost power, zamindars gained power.
Akbar the Great- religiously tolerant and inclusive to Hindus and Sikhs.
Shah Jahan- built the Taj Mahal for his favorite wife and to show power.
Aurangzeb- began to persecute Hindus, led to decline of Mughal rule.
As power declined, led to increased presence of trading-post empires (Port and BR).