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Period 4 Review WHAP
Transcript of Period 4 Review WHAP
Why PORT and SP first to ATL?
Geo: coasts farther into ATL and closer to AFR.
Patriotism: Catholics monarch retook SP from Muslims, want to go farther.
Geo: wanted to bypass IT trade in Med. w/ East. So looked for alt. route.
PORT in AFR w/ Henry the Navigator (prince/school). Dias passed Cape of Good Hope, De Gama made it to IND.
SP had to go W. b/c other routes taken by PORT and IT.
Columbus 1492, GGG --> West Indies.
Effects of Columbian Exchange
Def: Two-way exchange of new animals, plants, diseases and people.
Animals and Plants from Euro- horses, pigs, chickens, cows, sugarcane, bananas, wheat, and rice.
Horses and sugarcane had biggest impact: changed culture of most Native American groups and sugarcane plantation --> slaves from AFR.
Sugarcane plantations in Brazil started the slave trade to Americas. --> SP investing in "slave coast"
Animals and Plants from Americas: potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, corn, cocoa, chili peppers.
Potatoes were popular b/c easy to store and grow. Maize/corn --> staple in AFR and CH --> Population growth.
Diseases: Smallpox killed around 90% of Americas pop'ln. Depopulation --> more land for Euro to conquer and settle.
People: Africans forced to the Americas as slaves, Indentured servants from Euro, and voluntary migrants. Religions also blended as newly converted Catholics had little rel. instruction.
Precious Metals: Gold --> SP, but Silver from Peru = $ for CH.
First global network of exchange!
Continuities in Global Networks Exchange
Islam continued to spread into Sub-Sah AFR, E/SE Asia, and Central Asia.
Buddhism spread across SE Asia and Central Asia.
Hinduism core religion of IND
Indigenous faiths continued to practice.
Latin America & Atlantic World
Social Shifts: Blend of Euro, AFR, and Native Amer. cultures.
Economies: plantations and competed in global market, 13 English Colonies: fish and tobacco...
Triangular Trade: sugar/rum/cod --> Euro --> trade for silver/rum/manufactured goods --> buy slaves in AFR --> slaves to Americas.
Mercantilism: raw materials --> manufactured goods, favorable balance of trade, more $ more power, tariffs and bus. w/ private companies (EIC).
More than halfway there!
Factors --> crossing ATL
Advances in ship design and navigation (shoutout to trade w/ Asia for compass, better rudders/sails)
Desire to spread Christianity
motivated by comp. from Islam and Protestants, esp. in SP and PORT (reconquista), and focused on S. and E. Asia.
Trade ($$$) increased wealth led to Renaissance, want to capitalize w/ Americas.
Why not E. Euro? Arctic Ocean icy, not close to ATL, RU expanding into Siberia.
Why not China? Zheng He (fun fact: he's Muslim) treasure fleet (junks) ended b/c cost.
Period 4 Review
Global Interactions c.1450-c. 1750
Harty, Richland High School
Developments in Christianity and Euro Science
L. Amer synthesized Catholic and local traditional faiths. MX: saints to on responsibilities of precolonial gods. Caribbean: African blend w/ Christianity= voodoo/Vodum
Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther 95 Theses challenged the Catholic Church (ex indulgences). Broke from Cath. Church to form Lutheranism.
King Henry VIII (8) created Anglican Church for a divorce.
Catholic/Counter Reformation: reformed a little, but Jesuits are most important effect. They began "army of the Pope" and led mission movements in L. Amer.
Jesuits used for academia and science in China-- marked turning point in global leadership in tech from East to West.
SciRev: Monarchs put $ into sci research to gain new tech for dominating world markets. Effects: reduced faith in divine explanations of life, depended on science to answer challenges --> Ind. Rev.
Developments in Labor Systems
Peasant Labor increased in RU, IND, and CH b/c of increased need of goods for trade.
RU --> Siberia for furs.
IND- hand-woven cotton.
CH- silk production
Slavery intensified in AFR
ATL w/ Europeans, MED/IND Ocean w/ Muslim Arabs b/c of increasing need for labor.
Sugar plantations in Brazil- 3 yr life expectancy
Loss of AFR men greatly declined pop'ln and decreased patriarchy.
Encomienda and Mita Systems: use the natives who survived disease as slave labor, mostly in silver mines. Complaints --> end in early 1700s.
Indentured servitude: hired Europeans to work for no pay for around 7 years. Some learn a trade, but after 7 years they are freed.
Existing Govs Maintain or Increase Power
CH: Qing expanded to North and West. Didn't force conquered people to adopt CH principles and were tolerant of local faiths and customs. They did limit pastoral herders in C. Asia and allowed Silk Roads trade to wither away (camel caravan and Indian Ocean Trade.
RU: Ivan the Great ran off Mongols and expanded to Siberia. Forced farming from nomads. Forced peasants to work public projects. Maintained religious tolerance. Peter and Catherine the Great expanded and modernized RU (St. Petersburg, Cath called RU European and invited immigrants into RU.
Serfdom didn't end, nor any limits on czar power.
W. Euro (SP, BR, FR, HOL): used mercantile system, built sea empires in Americas.
Americas: SP/PORT more directly involved: Viceroys (assistant kings) but communication slow. Also gained territory in Pacific and Indian Oceans- Philippines. HOL, BR, FR had more decision-making done locally.
Rise of Absolute and Constitutional Monarchs- Eng limited w/ Glorious Rev and Bill of Rights. FR/SP absolute monarchy.
Ottoman reached peak power: defeated Byzantines in 1453. Became cultural and geo link between East and West. Used Janissaries under devshirme system. Struggled w/ nat'l identity.
New Gov't in Asia and Europe
Tokugawa JP: PORT, SP, HOL, and BR sent missionaries and silver to JP. At first JP welcomed Europe (interested in their guns). Tokugawa's form Shogunate and kick out Europe (except one Dutch ship)
Mughal India: claimed from Mongols. Akbar the Great extended religious toleration to Hindus. Mughals were Muslim rulers.
Netherlands: small but powerful trade. DEIC sent ships to take PORT outposts in Indian Ocean and controlled spice trade in SE Asia.
Collapse of Empires
Aztec: 14th century power empire who expanded through conquest and tribute system. Rulers descendents from gods (ancient Egypt) and loved human sacrifice. Fell due to internal pressure from conquered people and arrival of Europeans w/ weapons and disease.
Inca: c. 1450- c. 1550 in S. America along Andes MTNs. Expanded through conquest and tribute system. Also had emperor from the gods. Conquered people had to assimilate to Incan culture. Also had Incan Socialism. Record-keeping = quipu knotted strings. Fell due to internal strife and Europeans.
Byzantine: slow decline due to constant war w/ Muslim forces. Hagia Sophia changed from Greek Orthodox to a mosque. Constantinople = Istanbul.
European Exploration E X P A N D S
Trade and Ag:
Indian Ocean trade continued
Many still remained farmers.
Indigenous faiths continued to practice.
Changes: crops that were grown b/c of Columbian Exchange (corn in CH)
Before Euro, migration of locals ended.
SE Africa, Bantu built Great Zimbabwe
New Political and Economic Elite Groups
Pol. Elites China: Manchus defeated Ming and are new elite ruling class --> Qing Dynasty (1644-1912). Minority, but adopted Confucianism, bureaucracy, and mandate of heaven.
Pol. Elites L. Amer: know the pyramid.
Pol. Elites in N.Amer: 13 colonies less racial blending. Euro elites= large landowners, and farmers, craftspeople, and indentured servants below them.
Economic elites in Europe: entrepreneurs who did financially well improved their social status. CH still viewed merchants as lowly, but they had a ton of money to ease their pain.