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Reducing Fertility in Bangladesh
Transcript of Reducing Fertility in Bangladesh
The four programs which are initiatives to control the high fertility rate are:
1) The deployment of young, married women as outreach workers
2)The provision of a wide a range of methods to meet reproductive needs
3)The establishment of family planning clinics in rural areas to provide clinical contraceptive services
4)The provision of information, education, and communication activities
Bangladesh became an independent state on December 16, 1972
The population of the country is approximately 162 million people
Agriculture generates about one third of GDP while providing employment to over 60% of the labor force
The country faces a number of challenges including poverty, corruption, overpopulation, and vulnerability due to climate
Economic development has always been constrained by the large population and high population density
Reducing Fertility in Bangladesh
In 1995, the fertility program would cost about $100 million to $150 million per year
One half to two thirds of the funding comes from external donors.
In the beginning, health care spent about $ 13 to $ 18 per birth prevention.
By: Bethany Fudge, Bilal Khan, Pooja Patel, Zinal Patel, Christine Raveenthran, and Shruthi Sharma
Population growth rates in Bangladesh are increasing due to fertility
Food production, economic sustainability, and social progress are in jeopardy due to the high fertility rate
Statistic: In the Mid-1970s, Bangladeshi women on average had 6 children in a lifetime
Child bearing is a major determinant of health in Bangladesh and has a big impact on health outcomes of infants and mothers
The high fertility rate causes unmanageable nutrition for newborns and limited access to quality health care services
Reduction of fertility will provide economic prosperity while also reducing infant and maternal mortality
Introduction of Health Condition: Reducing Fertility in Bangladesh
Introduction to Bangladesh: Country and People
Interventions or programs to control the high fertility rate
Cost and cost-effectiveness of initiatives in Bangladesh
Impact of Interventions
Oral contraceptives and other temporary methods increased
Wide range of contraceptive methods needed in increase of overall use
When a full range of methods was made available:
80% of women continued using contraception for > 1year
When only condoms and oral contraceptives were available:
only 40% of women sustained use
Most importantly, fertility declined
6.3 births per woman in the early 1970s to about 3 births per woman in 2004
Greatest decline in fertility rates was observed between women aged 35 years and older
Bangladesh – one of the few poor countries to achieve major fertility declines without resorting to draconian measures
6 factors primarily accounted for reproductive change in Bangladesh
Opportunities exist to:
Increase the program’s efficiency
Respond more effectively to women’s needs
Better link family planning and health.
Bangladesh is the ninth most populous country in the world with a population density of about 2,000 persons per square mile
In the 1990s, about 80% of the population was living in poverty and illiteracy was common
Both Hindu and Muslim populations favour large families thus the fertility rate was high
When Pakistan controlled Bangladesh, it enforced a coercive family planning program that did not take account the local and rural population
There are 4 main challenges facing future initiatives
Centre for Global Development. (2013). Case 13 Reducing Fertility in Bangladesh. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from: http://www.cgdev.org/section/initiatives/_archive/millionssaved/ studies/case_13
Chowdhury, M. K., & Bairagi, R. (1990). Son preference and fertility in Bangladesh. Population and Development Review, 749-757.
Cleland, J., Phillips, J. F., Amin, S., & Kamal, G. M. (1994). The determinants of reproductive change in Bangladesh: success in a challenging environment. World Bank.
Hossain, S. I. (1989). Effect of public programs on family size, child education and health. Journal of Development Economics, 30(1), 145-158.
Fertility, B. Robey. (1988). Population & Policy, Population Institute.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. (2011, March). 1 | financing health care of Bangladesh financing health care of Bangladesh. Retrieved from http://nasmis.dghs.gov.bd/dghs_new/dmdocuments/All/Financing Health Care of Bangladesh.pdf
U.S National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. (2008). Reducing Maternal Mortality and Improving Maternal Health. Journal of Population and Nutrition. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2740701/
USAID. (2012, Jan). Dollars to results. Retrieved from http://results.usaid.gov/bangladesh
1)In the Mid 1970s, on average Bangladeshi women were having how many children in their lifetime?
2)Name one contraceptive method:
3)The video shown had a gender specialist from which organization?
4)True or False: In Bangladesh, Hindu and Muslim populations do not prefer large families.
5)Around how much was spent on the fertility program in 1995?
6)The initiatives were able to decrease fertility to how many births per woman in 2004?
7)In which population setting was family planning needed? e.g. Urban, Suburban, etc.
8)Name one of the factors that drove reproductive change in Bangladesh?