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The Effect of pH on the Rising of Bread

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by

Silpa Mathew

on 9 September 2014

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Transcript of The Effect of pH on the Rising of Bread

Data and Conclusion:
In conclusion, our hypothesis was supported. The height of the breads after baking with the acidic solution (lemon juice) and the basic solution (80% baking soda solution) were lower than the height of the control variable, or the bread with the neutral pH (water bread).
A weakness of this experiment is that the exact pH’s of the lemon juice and the 80% baking soda solution are not known because of a lack of a pH test kit.
Materials:
-3 teaspoons sugar
-3 packages dry yeast
-9 cups all-purpose flour
-1 ½ cups warm water
-1 ¼ cups lemon juice
-1 cup baking soda
-3 ¾ teaspoons salt
-cooking spray
-3 large eggs
-3 bread pans (8in x 3in x 2in)
-1 knife
-1 measuring cup
-1 spoon
-3 large bowls
-3 plates
-1 ruler
-1 timer
-1 oven
Procedure:
Abstract:
In this lab, the effects of pH levels on the rising of bread was investigated. Overall, there were two experimental conditions and one control condition. The experimental conditions were the acidic replacement for water (lemon juice) and the basic replacement for water (80% baking soda solution). The control experiment followed the normal recipe for baking bread, which used water. In this lab, after the materials were gathered, sugar,dry yeast, flour, water, and salt were mixed together until dough was formed. Next, there were multiple periods were the dough was allowed to rise. After the dough was done rising, it was made into a 14in x 7in rectangle that was then rolled up into a 2in high roll and placed in the bread pan to rise again. Finally, the bread was placed into the oven to bake. Once the bread was removed from the oven, it was measured to check it's rise. This same process was repeated for the experimental conditions except that the water used in the dough mixture was replaced with the acidic or basic alternative. At the end, it was concluded that a neutral dough, the water bread dough, had the greatest rise and therefore was the best condition to bake bread in.
Hypothesis:
If an acidic or basic solution is added to the dough of the bread instead of water, which has a pH of seven, then the height of the bread will decrease. This is because bread recipes usually need water in order for the dough to rise properly and efficiently while baking.
Research Question:
What is the effect of pH on the rising of bread after it bakes?
The Effect of pH on the Rising of Bread
Background:
pH, or percentage hydrogen, is the measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. It is measured in a scale of 0-14. A pH of seven is considered neutral, which is mostly the pH of water. A measure under seven is acidic, and a measure higher than seven is basic. As pH decreases, or becomes more acidic, more positive hydrogen ions are present, and while the pH increases, or becomes more basic and less acidic, less positive hydrogen ions are present and instead, more negative hydroxide ions are present.
An example of an acidic solution is lemon juice, and an example of a basic solution is a baking soda solution.
Variables:
Independent variable:
The different experimental solutions used served as the independent variable. These solutions are lemon juice (for the acidic variable) and an 80% baking soda solution (for the basic solution).

Dependent variable:
The dependent variable is the amount of rising that occurs to the bread.

Control Variable:
The control variables are:
the water bread
the measurement of the ingredients that were used
the room temperature of the room where dough was left to rise
the amount of baking time in the oven for the bread
the temperature of the oven during baking
the size and height of the dough
the size of the pan used to bake bread


1) Gather all materials
For Water Bread:
2) Dissolve the 1 teaspoons of sugar and one whole package of dry yeast into ¼ cup of warm water in a large bowl and let it stand for 5 minutes.
3) Measure 3 cups of all-purpose flour into a dry measuring cup.
4) Add the measured flour, 1 cup of warm water, and 1 ¼ teaspoons of salt into the yeast mixture.
5) Stir until a soft dough forms.
6) Turn the dough out onto a floured surface and knead the dough until it is smooth and elastic.
7) Take a large bowl and coat it with cooking spray. Place the dough inside the bowl and make sure to coat the top of the dough with cooking spray also.
8) Cover the bowl with the dough using a plate and let it rise for 45 minutes.
9) After 45 minutes, to make sure the dough has risen enough, press two fingers into the dough. If the indentation made remains, the dough has risen enough.
10) Uncover the dough and punch it down. Cover the dough again and let it rise for 30 minutes.
11) Uncover the dough and punch it down. Cover the dough and let it rest for 10 minutes.
12) Flatten the dough out on a floured surface into a 14in x 7in rectangle.
13) Roll up the dough tightly starting from the shorter edge. While rolling, press firmly so that there are no air pockets. Make sure the rolled dough is 2 inches tall.
14) Seal all the seams closed by pinching them.
15) Place the rolled dough, with the pinched closed side down, into a bread pan sprayed with cooking spray.
16) Cover the pan and let the dough rise for 30 minutes.
17) Preheat the oven to 425°F.
18) After the 30 minutes, uncover the dough and brush the dough with egg to achieve a glossy top crust.
19) Bake the bread at 425°F for 12 minutes. Next, reduce the oven temperature to 350°F and bake the bread for an additional 15 minutes.
20) Remove the bread from the oven and allow it to cool.
21) Use a ruler to measure the height of the bread after baking. Record all data.

For Lemon Bread:
22) Dissolve the 1 teaspoons of sugar and one whole package of dry yeast into ¼ cup of lemon juice in a large bowl and let it stand for 5 minutes.
23) Measure 3 cups of all-purpose flour into a dry measuring cup.
24) Add the measured flour, 1 cup of lemon juice, and 1 ¼ teaspoons of salt into the yeast mixture.
25) Follow steps 5-21 from the water bread procedure.

For Baking Soda Bread:
26) Mix 1 cup of baking soda with ¼ cup of water to create an 80% Baking Soda solution.
27) Dissolve the 1 teaspoons of sugar and one whole package of dry yeast into ¼ cup of baking soda solution in a large bowl and let it stand for 5 minutes.
28) Measure 3 cups of all-purpose flour into a dry measuring cup.
29) Add the measured flour, 1 cup of baking soda solution, and 1 ¼ teaspoons of salt into the yeast mixture.
30) Follow steps 5-21 from the water bread procedure.
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