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Transcript of Questioning Strategies
What are questions? How do they differ from other forms of statements?
sensory memory Short term memory
Long Term memory
linking the content of short term memory to prior experiences
Questioning tactics, if properly implemented, can be very effective instructional strategies. Can you think of why?
Questions elicit response. - attention
Once you have the attention of the student fixed on the content of the question, how will you guide that attention to maximize the probability of linking students' prior experiences to the concepts that you wish to address?
General Framework of Effective questions
Logos, Ethos, Pathos
(appeal to logic) - Questions that pertain to consistency of arguments in the text.
(appeal to the characteristics and credibility of the writer) - questions that require students to infer the writer's experiences through the nature of his presentation.
(appeal to emotions) - Questions that elicit emotional response from the writer.
Note: Emotional responses require judgements based on one's own beliefs and experiences.
This rectangle represents the complete realm of the writers experience
The circle represents the universe of all possibilities.
Illustration of the general framework of effective questions
Application of the general framework of Effective Questions
Consider the following excerpt from a text,
They say that the Earth is moving at thirty kilometers per second with respect to the Sun. If I can notice myself traveling in my car at 60km/hr, how can we not notice the speed of Earth?
Logos - Why does the writer refuse to believe that earth is not moving in space?
ethos - Is the writer reasonable in assuming that people on earth should be able to notice the movement of Earth through space?
pathos - Imagine yourself in a moving car. Given that you cannot look outside and the car is traveling at constant speed in a straight line (velocity), would you be able to tell whether the car is moving or not?
Think of scaffolding! How is this concept applied in the general framework of effective questions?
Question to Understand and Improve Learning and Thinking ( QUILT Framework)
This framework advocates the use of questions as formative assessments.
wait-time - the time in between the question and the response. Organizing thoughts requires time.
Stage 1: Prepare the question
Stage 2: Present the question
Stage 3: Prompt Student Responses
Stage 4: Process Student Responses
Stage 5: Reflect on questioning practice
ReQuest (Please turn to page 89)
- group of two
- has a questioner task card and a respondent task card
-How does ReQuest exploit the concept of reciprocal teaching?
Question-Answer Relationship (QAR)
describes four types of questions
1) Right there
2) Think and Search
3) Author and You
4)On your Own
Remember the general framework of effective questions? How does QAR reflect the general framework of effective questions?
The ultimate goal of questioning strategies for a teacher is to not only formulate scaffolded and meaningful questions but also to instill the habit of quality questioning in students.
Why is it necessary to teach students to formulate meaningful questions?
Because any process of learning is preceded by a series of questioning and answering sessions.
Questioning Framework to help students formulate their own questions (Turn to page 94)
1) SQ3R - survey, question, read, recite, review
2) SQ4R - survey, question, read, recite, reflect, review
3) SQRQCQ - survey, question, re-read, question, compute, question
Which of the questioning strategies are you excited to implement in your classroom?
Is there a strategy that you think would be challenging to implement in your class?
Bond, N. (2008). Questioning Strategies that Minimize Behavior Problems. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed For Quick Review, 73(6), 41-45.
Frey, N. & Fisher, D. (2012). Improving Adolescent Literacy: Content Area Strategies at Work, Pearson Education Inc.,
Inoue, N., & Buczynski, S. (2011). You Asked Open-Ended Questions, Now What? Understanding the Nature of Stumbling Blocks in Teaching Inquiry Lessons. Mathematics Educator, 20(2), 10-23.
Larson, L. R., & Lovelace, M. D. (2013). Evaluating the efficacy of questioning strategies in lecture-based classroom environments: Are we asking the right questions? Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 24(1), 105-122.
Lutz, S. T., & Huitt, W. G. (2003) Information Processing and Memory - Theory and Applications. Educational Psychology Interactive. Retrieved. http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/infoproc.pdf
McComas, W.F., & Abraham, L. (2004). Asking Effective Questions. Retrieved. http://cet.usc.edu/resources/teaching_learning/docs/
Rowe, M. (1986). Wait Times: Slowing Down May Be a Way of Speeding Up. Journal Of Teacher Education, 37(1), 43-50.
Smart, J. B., & Marshall, J. C. (2013). Interactions between Classroom Discourse, Teacher Questioning, and Student Cognitive Engagement in Middle School Science. Journal Of Science Teacher Education, 24(2), 249-267.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2006). Levels and Types of Questions. Center for Excellence Web Site: http://leusd.les.schoolfusion.us/modules/groups/homepagefiles/cms/568549/File/Files%202009/Levels_and_Types_of_Questions.pdf?sessionid=705e0ac7c99bc4b2f09f4852baecc112
Wilson, M. (2002). Six views of Embodied Cognition. University of California. Retrieved. http://www.indiana.edu/~cogdev/labwork/WilsonSixViewsofEmbodiedCog.pdf
1) Prepare the Question
Identify instructional purpose
Determine Content Focus
Select Cognitive Level
Consider wording and syntax
2) Present the question
Indicate response format
Ask the question
3) Prompt Student Responses
Pause after asking question
Pause following Student response
4: Process Student Responses
Provide appropriate feedback
Expand and use correct responses
Elicit student reactions and questions
5)Reflecting on questioning practice
Map respondent selection
Evaluate student response patterns
Examine teacher and student reactions
Please take some time to reflect on how continuous reflection can help one become a better practitioner in any field?
By making sure that follow up questions build up on the intensity of preceding questions.
Special Interest Group
July 10, 2013
Chapter 5: Why Ask? Questioning Strategies in the Classroom