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PM101: Introduction to IT Project Management

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Rhenz Gabalonzo

on 12 October 2012

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Transcript of PM101: Introduction to IT Project Management

QUALITY INTRODUCTION TO PM 101: - the application of knowledge, skill, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations. (PMBOK) WHAT IS
PROJECT MANAGEMENT? The Project Management Lifecycle EXECUTING CLOSING MONITORING & CONTROLLING INITIATION IMPLEMENTATION PLANNING QUESTIONS? To break complex processes into simpler components The Project Plan 1. Always be Closing SE7EN october 2012 the purpose of THE ELEMENTS of a project plan What is to be done ? a basic project plan should be able to answer: when to COMPLETE THE PLAN with Concrete and Specific Requirements, before the execution of the project. with Partial/Evolving Requirements, plan incrementally before each leg of the project; then adjust as new considerations arise. the SCOPE creating Clarifying and defining project objectives. a scope statement
should include the following: (WBS) the Project Determining what needs to be done. Determining who does what and who is who. NETWORK the Determining how the project
will be completed. CRITICAL A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analyzing which sequence of activities (path) has the least amount of schedule flexibility (float). CPM (CPM) Sample Diagram Project ESTIMATION
and BUDGETING Determining how long it will take and how much it will cost. ESTIMATION BUDGETING INPUTS TOOLS & TECHNIQUES Work Breakdown Structure Analogous SCHEDULING MANAGEMENT Determining areas of potential problems gaining BUY-IN Cook up an imaginative project title Visualize it! Simplify descriptions What’s in it for the client? THANK YOU ! AEON CREDIT TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS (PHILS.), Inc.
802 Philplans Corporate Center
1012 Triangle Drive corner 10th & 11th Avenues
Bonifacio Global City 1634
Taguig, philippines QUALITY MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT PROJECT MANAGEMENT Acceptance Testing Finishing the product Gaining final acceptance Creating historical records Lessons learned Training Maintenance and Upgrades Release Control TRIPLE CONSTRAINTS AND PROJECT CONTROL TIME COST QUALITY RULES EFFECTIVE FOR AN MEETING 1. Negotiation Skills Recommended BEFORE THE MEETING DURING THE MEETING AFTER THE MEETING Define a clear set of agenda Circulate agenda and consider feedback Invite and prepare only relevant stakeholders Establish the order of the meeting Start on time, Respect other people's time by being punctual Note pending items for further discussion. Summarize and confirm resolutions and responsibilities Stay on the road Do not dominate, always collaborate Actively participate in the discussions Push for a resolution within the time frame Respect the order and time allotted per agenda. Ensure that someone is recording the meeting Debrief - evaluate the good and bad points of the meeting Send the minutes of the meeting to all attendees. Improve the meeting process MANAGER PROJECT THE FINE ART OF SCHEDULING ''IF IT WERE A SCIENCE,
ALL PROJECTS WOULD BE
DELIVERED ON TIME!"
(Nick Jenkins) Rule #1: Don’t commit to something you can’t deliver. PRINCIPLES Rule #5: Schedule for the unexpected Rule #4: Pick the right level of granularity Rule #3: Build in plenty of contingency to cope with variation. Rule #2: Eliminate uncertainty whenever you can. OF SCHEDULING FORMAT THE Simple vs Detailed : A Dilemma of project schedules ADJUSTING CRASHING FAST-TRACKING TIME COST & MANAGING PEOPLE Improving cooperation and communication. NEGOTIATION the process of achieving consensus while avoiding conflict. ELEMENTS Understanding Consensus Contribution Trust Empathy PILLARS OF SUCCESSFUL TEAMWORK OF BUILDING A TEAM Trust Delegation Loyalty Equality Communication Commitment Involvement Motivation EXECUTION The Myth of Completion My team can handle it! PROJECT PITFALLS MANAGING PEOPLE continued Order correlating size of work against complexity
to estimate effort per tasks Procedure: Using Gantt Charts The significance of Milestones A tool for anticipating and forecasting likely events Provide a baseline for executing a project A starting point of adjusting sequence activities A uniform view of the project Means of visibility and communication How is it to be achieved? Who is to do it ? When it needs to be done by ? Project Objectives Project Deliverables Project Product Project Justification Historical Information Activity Duration Estimates Resource Rates Resource Requirements Computerized Bottom-Up Parametric of Magnitude Method 5. Add the value for all the tasks to come up with
an estimated time to complete the project. 4. For each of the combination, define an expected
amount of time and resources needed. 3. Plot each scale combination. 2. Evaluate each task on two scales:
Complexity and Size of Work. 1. Breakdown typical SDLC phases into smaller tasks. Use Case-Based Method assigning points per use case complexity to derive effort
Note:
As a starting point, 20 man-hours per point across the development life cycle may be used as basis. Points are given for each use case. Scores of 5 to 15 can be assigned for each use case. Effort estimate depends on the time it takes to deliver one point. Determining when each activity
will be performed Success of a project is generally affected
by the right balance of cost, time, and quality. GETTING Defining SUCCESS CHARTER The overall aim of the project and the benefit of doing it STARTED Roles and responsibilities within the project The resources available to the project The specific deliverables The key objectives project The scope (or terms of reference) of the project MANAGEMENT PROJECT of ABC's 7. Always be Communicating 6. Always be Competent 5. Always be Cognitive 4. Always be Cultivating 3. Always be Considerate 2. Always be Courteous Providing the target THE PROJECT a formal document recognizing the existence of the project defines the high-level requirements for the project and links the project to the ongoing work of the organization. may be created by the project manager, but issued by the sponsor in the initiating process A PROJECT CHARTER? WHAT IS dramatically reduces the risk that the project will be canceled due to lack of support or perceived value to the company. THE CHARTER If the project charter is changed, the changes have to be approved the sponsor. needs to be broad enough so it does not need to be changed, as the project evolves documents the overall objectives of the project and helps manage the expectations. THE CHARTER drafting the ACTS Project Mandate document. SECTIONS key Project Charter of the Project Title & Description a simple, high-level description of what the project is. Project Manager Assigned and Authority Level names the project manager and states whether he or she can determine, manage, and approve changes to the budget, schedule, staffing, etc. Business Case explains what business problem is being solved by the project. It addresses the question of why the project is being undertaken Measurable Project Objectives addresses how the project ties into the organization’s strategic goals, and includes the project objectives that support those goals Examples of soft metrics include:

Improve client satisfaction
Increase product quality
Improve process flow
Increase employee productivity
Improve information flow Examples of hard metrics include:

Increase in sales by a defined percentage
Reduce costs by a defined percentage or specific dollar amount
Reduce product production waste by a defined percentage
Reduce manufacturing time by a defined period of time on a per unit basis includes the project sponsor’s indication of what specific product deliverables are wanted, and a clear picture of the end result of the project. Product Description/Deliverables BENEFITS NEED Formally recognizes/authorizes/establishes the existence of the project MINIMUM of having a PROJECT CHARTER WE A PROJECT CHARTER because it... ensures that the project manager understands the sponsor’s needs creep SCOPE avoiding scope creep is one of the most common reasons projects run over budget and deliver late. Defining the boundaries of a project is difficult; and without a clear definition you're heading for problems. STATEMENT what is a SCOPE ? what a project manager commits to deliver early in the life of a project. recorded for and agreed by relevant stakeholders identifies what is needed to bring about the project objectives defined during the requirements analysis phase MAJOR CAUSES of scope creep Poor Requirements Analysis Gold Plating. Lack of Change Control Underestimating the Complexity of the Project Not Involving Users Early Enough SUPPLEMENTARY TRAINING 7. Leadership Skills 6. People/Interpersonal Skills 5. People Motivation Skills 4. Stress Management 3. Risk and Issue Management 2. Business Communication Skills PROJECT empowers and protects the project manager by describing what the project manager is being asked to accomplish provides the basis for planning the project provides a reference document to make sure everyone is on the same page at any point in the project provides key information needed to get the project started Provides the high-level requirements for the project Gives the project manager authority to spend money and commit resources Defines the grounds within which the project manager has the authority to operate TESTING ACCEPTANCE to assess if the system can support day-to-day business and user scenarios and ensure the system is sufficient and correct for business usage. a phase of software development in which the software is tested in the "real world" by the intended audience or a business representative. GOAL: DEFINITION: BETA TESTING
APPLICATION TESTING
USER TESTING { } STAFFING BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE work a foundational building block to initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling processes used to manage projects (Brotherton, Fried, and Norman, 2008). key CHARACTERISTICS of a HIGH-QUALITY WBS deliverable oriented “Any unique and verifiable product, result, or capability to perform a service that must be produced to complete a process, phase or project.” aligned or positioned with respect to deliverables, i.e., focused on deliverables. hierarchical decomposition of the work “a planning technique that subdivides the project scope and project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components, until the project work associated with accomplishing the project scope and deliverables is defined in sufficient detail to support executing, monitoring and controlling the work” (PMBOK ® Guide – Third Edition) follows the 100% rule. applies at all levels within the hierarchy the WBS should not include any work that falls outside the actual scope of the project the sum of the work at the “child” level must equal to 100% of the work represented by the “parent” 1.0 New Product Release
1.1 New Product Inventory
1.2 Product Documentation
1.3 Product Training Materials
1.4 Project Management 1.0
New Product
Release 1.1
New Product
Inventory 1.2
Product Documentation 1.3
Product Training Materials 1.3
Product Training Materials 1.0
New Product Release 1.1
New Product Inventory 1.3
Product Training Materials 1.2
Product Documentation 1.4
Project Management Network Diagram a schematic display of a project's activities and the logical relationship (dependencies) among them. factors that force management 3. Initial timelines were too "optimistic", but now, in reality,
you realize that things are a little different 6. Penalties and loss of goodwill. 4. Market demand for the product to come out earlier than anticipated 5. Project is already delayed to speed up project execution: 1. Your client want to finish the project early 2. To get another project or because another opportunity is under way adding extra resources to reduce activity duration. - Review the Critical Path to see which activities could be completed earlier by adding resources After crashing Before crashing - Cannot be applied on ALL activities. - Add resources to complete activities prior to their planned completion dates - Find the activities that could be completed fastest with the least amount of resources and/or cost performing tasks in parallel or partially parallel. - Review the critical path to see which activities can be done concurrently or almost concurrently - Watch out for near-critical path activities as you perform critical activities in parallel - Comes with some amount of risk because you are performing activities in parallel which were originally planned to be performed in other ways. Before fast-tracking After fast-tracking Common Causes of PROJECT FAILURE! Life cycle problems People problems Inadequate resources Weak on-going project management discipline Poor up-front planning Incomplete or vague project work plan The Risk Recording High Critical Low Moderate IMPACT LIKELIHOOD LOW HIGH LOW HIGH Identifies and prioritizes all risk of the project. Facilitates management and resolution of risks together with the project team. Accept Transfer Mitigate Avoid RISK OFFICER Risk Management Resolution & RISK PROFILES Critical
High
Moderate
Low What skills do you need ? When do they come in ? Charting your authority hierarchy? Using R-A-C-I DIAGRAM the ESTIMATING in PROJECT MANAGER of the ROLE how long project activities will take how much cost it would take to complete what resources will be required to get things done Project Managers need to know: PROJECT ESTIMATION the determination of the effort it will take to achieve a desired result what do we COST TIME & in a PROJECT? ESTIMATE BUDGET total sum of the money allocated for the particular purpose of the project for a specific period of time GOAL of BUDGET Management to control project costs within the approved budget and deliver the expected project goals SUCCESS Criteria a PROJECT SCOPE that is delivered: the 3 On Schedule Within Budget Meets Quality Expectations What should be internal and external equipment travel materials and supplies human resources Budget? in my pretty much anything
that your project
will SPEND on... ... but in much more detail. TRAINING User Training introducing users to your system MAINTENANCE & UPGRADE Ensuring your system's sustainability and permanence. Availability of product documentation Scheduled upgrades Support Personnel RELEASE A set of activities that manages the integration and flow of product and/or product components across the development, testing, deployment and support phases of a system. Typical Control Elements :
Identifiers of the release(e.g. version #)
Release Properties (e.g. date,time,releasing entity)
Purpose of the release (e.g. testing, deployment, bug-fix) CONTROL FORMAL Administrative - documentation that the client or sponsor has accepted the product of the project are prepared and distributed. Contract Close Out - The person or organization responsible for the contract administration should provide the seller with a formal written notice that the contract has been completed. ACCEPTANCE FINISHING THE PRODUCT The project, after achieving its objectives or being terminated for other reasons, shall require closure. Initiating a formal project closure officially announces to the project team and to its client that it has fulfilled its obligations and is ready to finally close this chapter of the product's book. when your team crosses the finish line of the project During this phase, the project team evaluates its overall performance, reflects on lessons learned, promotes its best practices, and contribute its project records to the organization's historical database. Lessons Learned The causes of variances , the reasoning behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned should be documented so they could become part of the historical database for both the project and the other projects of the performing organization. CONTRIBUTING HISTORICAL RECORDS A complete set of indexed project records should be prepared for archiving by the appropriate parties. Any project specific or program wide historical databases pertinent to the project should be updated for future use. Performance measurement documentation
Documentation of the project's product
Other project records (e.g. memos, reports, meeting minutes) Historical record includes: Tutorials/Online Help Support Manuals Support Staff Training Users Manual USE CASE METHOD EXAMPLE Depending on complexity, points are given for each use case. Scores of 5 to 15 can be assigned for each use case. Estimating the effort is dependent on the time it takes to deliver a point. Note: As a starting point, industry resources suggest that 20 man-hours per point across the development life cycle can be used as basis. This table serves as an example in computing for the points and estimated man-hours Taking into account the average effort involved in each of the SDLC phases, we can now calculate the estimated duration for each of the phases. Complexity Matrix Sample Scenario Effort Distribution Per Phase ORDER OF MAGNITUDE METHOD EXAMPLE Sample Scenario 3. Each of the identified tasks may fall under any of the nine combinations of the Complexity vs. Size of Work Scale. The weighing factors will differ based on the team and project and should be reviewed after the project to get a better value setting for the next project. For each of the combination, define an expected amount of time and resources needed.
Add the value for all the tasks to come up with an estimated time to complete the project. Size-Complexity Matrix 1.Breakdown typical SDLC phases such as
requirement elicitation into different tasks.

2. Evaluate each task on two scales namely
Complexity and Size of Work. Complexity
may have ranks of High, Medium and Low
while the Size of Work may have Small,
Medium, and Large. Software ABC Work Breakdown Structure Raise awareness of risks. Risk can be measured by its likelihood and impact to the project. Risks can be addressed in 4 ways: Breakdown the task into individual steps.

Come up with the Best Case, Most Likely, and Worst Case time estimates for each step

Add up each column and apply the formula: ( BC + 4ML + WC ) / 6 PERT Method PERT METHOD EXAMPLE Identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risks. Consists mainly of risk identification, risk quantification, risk response development, and risk response control. A Network Diagram using Precedence Diagramming Method ( with schedule ) Method Path [ EXERCISE ] Uncontrolled changes and growth
of the project scope. SCOPE CREEP: OUTLINE View: TREE/ORGANIZATIONAL CHART STRUCTURE CENTRALIZED TREE STRUCTURE EXAMPLE TREE STRUCTURE WBS SAMPLE WBS
REPRESENTATIONS PROJECT EXECUTION Carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein such as; Developing the product
Expending the budget
Utilizing the resources
Verifying the product against scope
Ensuring satisfaction of customer needs SCOPE VERIFICATION The process of formalizing the acceptance of the project scope by the stakeholders (sponsors, clients, customer, etc.). It requires reviewing work products and results to ensure that all were completed correctly and satisfactorily. REP ORTING erformance Performance Reporting involves the collecting and disseminating performance information in order to provide stakeholders with information about how the resources are being used to achieve project objectives. Includes: Status Reporting
Progress Reporting
Forecasting Leading Influencing the Organization Problem Solving Negotiating Communicating SKILLS GENERAL MANAGEMENT Know your goal 10 AXIOMS
OF SUCCESS Keep an Open mind Test early, test often Manage Change Stay on track Iterate! Increment! Evolve! Promise low and deliver high Spend time in planning and designing Know your stakeholder Know your team quality A set of activities which identifies relevant quality standards of the project and determining how to satisfy them. By planning, implementing, and evaluating the project's performance against these quality standards, the project provides the confidence to the customer that the product will satisfy its needs. Ensuring the satisfaction of customer needs MANAGEMENT CHANGE MANAGEMENT The Change Management Process should address the following questions: What is under change control and what is excluded?
How are changes requested?
Who has the authority to approve or reject changes?
How are the decision upon approval or rejection documented and disseminated?
How are changes implemented and their implementation recorded? For Tracking Changes,
the system should be able to: Log request of changes against product and documentation.
Record and manage the priority of a particular change.
Log the decision of a change management authority.
Record the method of implementation of change.
Track implemented changes against a particular version of a product or document.
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