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Psychology unit 10: Treatment & Therapy

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Joe Berchtold

on 31 May 2013

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Transcript of Psychology unit 10: Treatment & Therapy

Treatment and Therapy Psychodynamic A little bit o' history... Biomedical Humanistic For some time, persons with mental illness were thought to be possessed by the devil, demons, evil spirits, etc. treatment consisted of ridding the body of evil spirits through things like exorcism The Four Humours -Later in history, mental illness was thought to be caused by an imbalance of the four humours -Treatment consisted of attempting to balance out the amounts of each humour in the body Bloodletting Insulin Shock Therapy Psychosurgery (a.k.a. brain surgery) Regular Lobotomy Transorbital Lobotomy brain surgery which involved drilling through the skull to the brain, and then cutting the connections to and from the prefrontal cortex Note: they do NOT do these anymore Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
(formerly known as Electroshock Therapy) -patient was injected with insulin, forcing him/her into a diabetic coma and seizure

-this treatment is also no longer used -electrical current is passed through the brain to induce a seizure
-it is a last resort treatment for severe cases of Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia and you wanna know something weird? We still don't know how this works Shock Therapy -treatments that work by inducing seizures Drug Therapy Antipsychotics Antidepressants Antianxiety Mood Stabilizers -medication used to treat schizophrenia -usually work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain -Thorazine
-Haldol Some antipsychotics... -medication used to to treat major depression -usually works by increasing levels of serotonin or norepinephrine -Xanax
-Ativan -Prozac
-Effexor Some antidepressants... -medication used to treat anxiety disorders Some antianxiety meds... -medication used to to treat Bipolar disorder Main one: Lithium Free association Resistance Transference Dream Analysis Still used today!! Freud's Couch The psychodynamic perspective says that psychological distress is caused by anxiety from unconscious desires and trauma in childhood to goal is to to alleviate distress by making the patient aware of their unconscious desires a.k.a. making the unconscious conscious -patient talks freely about whatever comes to mind, without censorship of any sort

-eventually, unconscious desires will emerge without their realizing it Trepanation Freudian slips: a slip of the tongue, which Freud considered to be signs of unconscious desires -Freud referred to dreams as "the royal road to the unconscious"
-He thought that the content of our dreams held hidden meanings about our unconscious desires http://www.thecuriousdreamer.com/dreamdictionary/analyzer/ Manifest Content - the obvious content of our dreams Latent Content - the hidden meanings behind the manifest content -Resistance is when patients avoid talking about subjects which cause them anxiety.

-A psychodynamic therapist will take resistance as a sign that a subject is important, and must be focused on -unconscious redirection of feelings for an important childhood figure to the therapist

-example: treating the therapist like you might your father Positive Personal Growth and Change Empathy Unconditional Positive Regard (UPR) Genuineness The 3 Core Conditions
to a Therapeutic Way of Being Person Centered Therapy developed by Carl Rogers Psychological problems occur when we place conditions of worth upon ourselves. This results in our real self, who we really are, being at odds with our ideal self, who we think we should be Positive Regard: The love, affection and support of others Ideal Self Real Self Techniques The therapist does not give direction to the therapy, but instead allows the patient to do so A method of asking questions or making statements that allows for the freest response possible Therapist listens to the client, and then restates what the client said in their own words. This reduces miscommunication, and lets the client know that the therapist is paying attention -Being real, being your absolute truest self. Complete honesty with the client.

(This means you can't fake empathy or UPR, you truly have to feel them!) -Trying one's best to understand the feelings of another, to put oneself in somebody elses shoes -accepting person for who he or she is without negative judgment, regardless of what they may say or do Closed-Ended Question
Do you get on well with your boss?
Who will you vote for this election?
What color shirt are you wearing? Open-Ended Question
Tell me about your relationship with your boss.
What do you think about the two candidates in this election?
That's an interesting coloured shirt you're wearing conditions one must meet in order to receive positive regard Person Centered Therapy assumes three things about people:

-all people desire to improve upon themselves and fulfill their potential
-deep down inside, people know what they
truly want and need
-all people seek Positive Regard Behavioral Cognitive Cognitive Therapy

Developed by Aaron Beck Rational Emotive Therapy

Developed by Albert Ellis Overgeneralization A B C dversity eliefs about the event onsequences The ABC's of
Rational Emotive Therapy leads to... leads to... Changing these from irrational to rational is the goal of therapy a.k.a. sucky thing happens to you psychological distress is caused by thinking in incorrect or irrational ways behaviors and feelings that follow as a consequence of the belief therapist helps client to identify these irrational thoughts, challenge them, and come up with new more rational ways of thinking

once thoughts are rational, emotional problems disappear Thought: "All dogs are dangerous" Polarized Thinking Everything is... Good or Bad
Right or Wrong
Smart or Stupid (No middle ground) Selective Attention making blanket judgments Categorizing information into only one of two categories focusing on only one detail out of many It is a dire necessity for an adult to be loved or approved by almost everyone for virtually everything he does. Maximum human happiness can be achieved by inertia and inaction or by passively and uncommittedly enjoying oneself. One should be competent and achieving in all possible respects People and things should be different from the way they are. It’s catastrophic if perfect solutions to the grim realities of life aren’t found. If something is dangerous or fearsome, one should be terribly occupied with and upset about it Human unhappiness is externally caused. People have little or no ability to control their sorrow or rid themselves of their problems. problems in emotion and behavior have been learned over the course of the person's life through classical and operant conditioning. Counter
Conditioning Systematic
Desensitization Flooding Operant
Conditioning Aversive
Conditioning Positive(+) Reinforcement(+)
-increasing behavior by adding a stimulus Negative(-) Reinforcement(+)
-increasing behavior by removing stimulus Positive(+) Punishment(-)
-decreasing behavior by adding a stimulus Negative(-) Punishment(-)
-decreasing behavior by removing a stimulus Stimulus+/- Behavior +/- treatment is to teach more effective behaviors -A stimulus which the person finds unpleasant is paired with something pleasant to create a new association. Now the stimulus should cause a more appropriate behavior -A pleasant but unappropriate stimulus is paired with something unpleasant to create a new association. Now the stimulus should cause a more appropriate behavior patient is given a massive exposure to a cause of anxiety, this could lessen a future response The patient is taught relaxation techniques, which are then used to deal with gradually increasing exposure to a problem stimulus. Common Irrational Thoughts Family Therapy Lobotomy Non-directiveness Open Statements Reflection Positive Regard and the Self Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) a sort of pacemaker is placed near the center of the brain and sends electrical signals to a particular part of the brain
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