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Filtering 2008 US presidential election news on YouTube by elites and nonelites:

An examination of the democratizing potential of the internet

Caroline Zamora

on 13 December 2012

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Transcript of Filtering 2008 US presidential election news on YouTube by elites and nonelites:

Ivan B. Dylko
Michael A. Beam
Kristen D. Landerville
Nicholas Geidner Filtering 2008 US presidential
election news on YouTube by
elites and nonelites:
An examination of the
democratizing potential
of the internet. Relating this back to what we have already covered in class. Why is there an interest in this topic? Method Results Presentation by:
Caroline R. Zamora The End! Gatekeeping

"... members of online communities aggregate and rate news from various sources." 15 popular online news destination, which happen to be owned by powerful corporations "Yahoo News, BBC Online, CNN Interactive, BBC News, The New York Times, The Huffington Post, The Weather Channel, Google News, NBC News, and MSNBC News, Reddit, The Guardian, Foxnews.com, Reuters Group PLC, Wall Street Journal, and The Times of India." Alexa (2011a) Trends in today's media Increasingly active audience
Growing popularity of user generated content YouTube --> Opposing views about YouTube You tube can be a powerful
democratizing tool


YouTube is more playful
than actually aiding serious
political issues Gatekeeping The framework of this study was the complex news gatekeeping process "...where communication industry player (i.e. news sources, news organizations, and news content distributors) and various journalistic routines (i.e. reliance on prestige press or elite sources) largely determine how the news is made, gathered, and transmitted." Shoemaker et al., (2001) What this study was looking at This study examined the gatekeeping process by looking specifically at filters that news information must pass through from inception to distribution. 3 different filters 1. featured persons/sources on YouTube News
2. YouTube news content creators
3. YouTube video posters Filter 1: Featured persons/sources in YouTube news Raw news is collected by journalist.
Journalist don't actually do the primary research
- Thus stories reflect frames and
biases of the stories sources
In Pol. news elite have a very
large gatekeeping power.
- Newsworthiness (i.e. high rankings)
Pol. figures (president) have the
highest power in framing pol. news.
- most sources have been elites and these
sourced determine what is reported. RQ1: Do the featured persons/sources of YouTube's
most popular news videos come from the ranks
of elite or nonelite news Filter 2: YouTube News Content Creators the featured person/source (f1) relays info. to the news content creator(f2). News content creators are journalist or news organizations

Individual reporters are the first gatekeepers

Organizations have routines, practices, embedded ideologies that impact the news. RQ2: Do the content creators of YouTube's most popular political news videos come from the ranks of elite or nonelite groups. Intermedia Agenda Setting "... a process of reciprocal influence among different news organizations, is another factor shaping news content due to news organizations' tendency to take cues from one another, particularly from the prestige press." (p. 6) While intermedia agenda setting was not considered to be a filter, it still effects news content at various stages RQ3: To what extent is YouTube's most popular news content based on the work of traditional journalist? Filter 3: YouTube Video Posters featured person/source (f1), to content creator (f2), to the video poster (f3). The development of gatewatching
nonelites watch the news from online news sources, and decide
what stories to upload/redistribute.
-This is done through tools such as, tag, comment on, share link,
ect. RQ4: Do the video posters of YouTube's most popular political news video come from the ranks of elite or nonelite groups. Sample: For 5 months before the 2008 presidential election & election day, videos were captured on YouTube.
-Videos chosen appeared on the front page of (1) most viewed, and (2) in news and politics section, (3) for the current month
-A total of 113 videos were selected Operationalization: Elite persons are those affiliated with (1)Dem or Rep Party, (2) Org that is well funded, well known, broad in scope, and appeals to the average American, (3)Celebrities... all others are Nonelites (p. 9) Variables: --> Procedure: To establish reliability
3 coders looked at 10
randomly selected videos Of the 2008 pres. contenders (Featured person/source
-Barack Obama 28.3%
- Sarah Palin 17.7%
- John McCain 8.8%
- Hilary Clinton 3.5%
- Joe Biden 0.9%
- John Edwards 0.9%
- Journalist 6.19%
- Other politicians 5.31%
- Celebrities 5.31% -2 Content Creators 23.89%
-At least 3 20.35%
content creators
-27% of clips were from news programs (i.e. CNN)
-15% were Pro. Partisan (i.e. political ads)
-11% were amateur videos (political rally)
-10% Comedy programs (i.e. late night comedy shows) Notable elite video posters:
- Obama Campaign 12.39%
- Associated press 4.42%
- C-Span 4.42%
- McCain Campaign 2.65%

Nonelite video posters:
- Mlmedia 3.54%
- barelypolitical 2.65% RQ1: In political news content who dominates YouTube Videos based on who gets featured more... Elites or Nonelites The number of videos featuring elites was far greater that the number of videos featuring nonelites. RQ2: Are content creators of YouTube new Videos Elites or Nonelites Elite content creators were far more likely to create content that were Nonelites. RQ3: How much of YouTube's news content was based on the work of journalist Over 56% of content in videos was traditional media RQ4: Do posters of YouTube news videos originate from Elites or Nonelites. The number of Nonelite posters was two times larger than the number of elite video posters. What does this all mean? It means that YouTube's most popular news videos feature elites, are created by elites, and consist of traditional media content. (p. 12) Any Questions? Dylko, I.B., Beam, M. A., Landerville, K.D., & Geidner, N. (2011).
Filtering 2008 US presidential election news on youtube by elites
and nonelites: An examination of the democratizing potential of
the internet. 1-18. doi:
10.1177/1461444811428899 New Media Society. "This study utilized a quantitative content analysis of YouTube's political content to examine internet-empowerment claims made from the camp of internet skeptics and internet optimists." (p. 4)
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