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Transcript of Motivation
Design of learning activities and assignments
tasks should be relevant and meaningful
the value of the tasks should be apparent to students
tasks should be varied
tasks should be appropriately challenging for all students
students should have some choice in task completion and/or design
Degree of control students have over learning activities and to develop a sense of autonomy
provide students with meaningful choices
provide opportunities for student to develop leadership skills
provide opportunities to develop student's self-regulation skills
how students are recognized and for what
provide timely and informational feedback about performance and/or competence
avoid social comparisons
encourage mastery goal orientations
avoid normative comparisons
provide accurate and credible feedback
provide feedback on effort early in learning process
provide ability feedback as students gain skills
be very cautious using extrinsic rewards
how learners work together
encourage collaboration, not competition
use heterogeneous cooperative groups
define jobs or roles for group members
use a variety of work structures (singles, pairs, small groups)
take the time to develop norms and explicitly teach how to behave in a group
how learning is monitored and assessed
avoid social comparisons
avoid normative comparisons
use a variety of assessment measures
measure progress, mastery and improvement
provide opportunities to improve work
the appropriateness of the workload, the pace of instruction, and the time allotted for completing work
break tasks into smaller chunks
provide some choice in task completion
adjust time or task requirements for struggling students
check for understanding frequently
teach time management
"Often, it is not that the child is not motivated, but that the child is not motivated to do what WE want him to do."
Theories of Motivation
"My colleagues and I assume that achievement-related choices (e.g., educational, occupational, and leisure-time choices), whether made consciously or nonconsciously, are guided by the following: (1) one's expectations for success on, and sense of personal efficacy for, the various options, as well as one's sense of competence for various tasks; (2) the relation of the options both to one's short-and long range goals and one's core personal and social identities, and basic psychological needs; (3) the individual's culturally based role schemas, such as those linked to gender, social class, religious group, and ethnic group; and (4) the potential cost of investing time in one activity rather than another. We assume that all of these psychologcial variables are influenced by one's experiences and interpretation of these experiences, by cultural norms, and by the behaviors and goals of one's socializers and peers."
1. People will seek to confirm their self-image.
2. Different activities afford different opportunities to confirm or contradict one's self-image.
3. People tend to value activities that confirm or provide opportunities to confirm their self-image, or that align with long-term goals more than those activites that do not.
4. People are more likely to engage in tasks that have higher subjective value than those that lave lower subjective value.
Why should I do this?
Am I able to do this?
What will I gain if I succeed?
What will it cost me if I fail?
Students who believe they can do the task and expect to do well are more likely to achieve at higher levels, be more cognitively engaged, and try harder and persist longer at the task. Current research suggests that self-perceptions of ability are domain specific, not global.
-Shrunk, Pintrich, & Meece
"I am good at math" is not the same as general self-esteem.
provide informational feedback on reasons for success and failure
"In a series of studies, we have shown that feedback that focuses on and judges the child's traits (whether in a positive or negative way) fosters an entity theory and the whole entity-oriented meaning system, whereas feedback that focuses on the child's process (e.g., effort or strategy) fosters an incremental theory and its meaning system."
-Dweck & Molden
"The results showed that the intelligence praise indeed fostered an entity theory in children -- the idea that their fixed ability was captured by their performance, whereas the effort prasie fostered a more dynamic, malleable view of intelligence. Along with the self-theories came different goals. When given a choice between pursuing a learning goal that would challenge and allow them to grow, and a performance goal that would allow them to look smart, children given the intelligence praise chose the performance goal, whereas those given the effort praise overwhelmingly chose the learning goal."
-Dweck & Molden
1. Individuals are motivated to understand and master their environment by making it more predictable and controllable.
2. Individuals do this by trying to understand why things happen, and why people do and say what they do.
entity theory = intelligence is a fixed trait or attribute
incremental theory = intelligence is changable and responsive to training
Schunk, Pintrich & Meece
Personal interest = somewhat stable personal disposition toward a specific topic or domain
Situational interest = somewhat temporary, situation-specific attention to a topic
"In contrast to individual interest that develops slowly and tends to be relatively long-lasting, situational interest is triggered more suddenly by environmental factors accross individuals. This emergent interest may not last beyond the time it is triggered ... Mitchell (1993) extended this distinction by proposing that the essence of triggering interest lies in finding ways to empower students by helping them find meaning or personal relevance ... Group work, puzzles, and computers were found to spark interest in math, but failed to maintain students' interest over time. Meaningfulness and involvement, on the other hand, proved to function as empowering variables by holding and sustaining students' interest."
"Self-esteem tends to flow from actual accomplishments and achievements, not vice versa ... Praising students noncontingenly can be detrimental. It leads students to think they should be praised for just existing, not for their actual accomplishments and skills. In the long run, students will not benefit from this type of empty praise; they will not get feedback to help develop their skills and expertise. Without accurate feedback about skill development it is difficult for students to change or regulate their behavior."
-Hidi & Harackiewicz
self-worth = a general, affective or emotional reaction to the self
self-efficacy = a cognitive appraisal of one's competence, usually in a specific domain
Sources of intrinsic motivation:
Challenge - present learners with task of intermediate difficulty that they feel efficacious about accomplishing
Curiosity - Present students with surprising or incongruous information that will motivate them to close a gap in their knowledge
Control - Provide learners with choices and a sense of control over their learning outcomes
Fantasy - Involve learners in fantasy and make-believe through simulations and games
-Lepper & Hodell
"In short, "Do this and you'll get that" makes people focus on the "that" not the "this." Do rewards motivate people? Absolutely. They motivate people to get rewards ...
It's important to distinguish well-conducted from poorly conducted research, and to understand the outcome variables in a given investigation. For example, if someone were to announce that studies have shown traditional classroom discipline techniques are 'effective,' our immediate response should be to ask, 'Effective at what? Promoting meaningful learning? Concern for others? Or merely eliciting short-term obedience?' Empirical findings can come from rigorously conducted scientific studies but still be of limited value; everything depends on the objectives that informed the research.
- A. Kohn
catching interest vs. holding interest
assessment anxiety is real
performance vs. mastery goals
Is intelligence changable?
Ryan & Deci
Curiouser and curiouser
"I don't believe it."
"That is why you fail."
"We have a good school here, but we get the wrong kinds of students."