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History of Photography

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by

David West

on 27 October 2013

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Transcript of History of Photography

Photography 1 - Mr. West
A Brief History of Photography
What is Photography?
Literally
means 'darkroom'
Image is projected through a pinhole
Used to form images on walls in darkened rooms;
Ancient Times
Camera Obscura
`
In Latin, literally means "
light writing
."
It is a
2-Dimensiona
l Art Form
Created when LIGHT makes contact
with an
Emulsion
, which is a light-senstive coating on film, paper or a plate.
Early Advances
Only projects an image - the only way to capture the image is to trace it by hand.
Image is inverted (upside down) due to
refraction
of light
`
Camera obscuras were frequently
used by artists to trace
images and made portable in the form of sedan chairs.
1600s:
Brightness and clarity
of camera obscura improved by
enlarging the hole and inserting a telescope lens
1500s:
1490 Leonardo DaVinci (Italy) First to describe why camera obscura works the way it does . Also realizes the human eye also works this way. (Our eyes receive image 'upside down', but our brains turn them rightside up!
500 BC - Mo Ti (China)
first known description of camera obscura
330 AD - Aristotle (Greece)
Observed a solar eclipse projected onto the ground as it shined through a small opening created by the leaves of a tree
Professor J. Schulze
accidentally made first photo-sensitive compound
(silver nitrate)
when he mixed chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask. He notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight.
1727:
Thomas Wedgwood
built on Schulze's discovery. He
made the first photographic process
, called
'sun drawing'
by painting the silver nitrate solution on leather, placed an object over the paint, set it in the sun and made silhouette of the object. However, it faded quickly. (This is kind of like
the Nature Prints & Photograms we made!)
1800
In 1826, Joseph Niépce made the first "permanent" image
using
light sensitive material. He
calls the process
heliography, which means 'sun drawing'
. It took
8 hours to expose
the image of a nearby rooftop and had
low resolution.
The First Permanent Image
Before he died, Niépce created a partnership with
Jacques Daguerre
.
In 1837, Daguerre developed the process called
Daguerreotyping.
This was the first popular and common form of photography.
He demonstrated this process to the public in Paris in 1839.

Images were exposed onto silver copper plates. It brought portraits to the masses and cost only 50 cents. Many portrait painters went out of business
Photography goes Public

The daguerreotype was
hard to duplicate

It was
fragile
and had to be kept inside a case or frame
Drawbacks
Required long exposure times.
Plates and equipment were difficult to transport
Chemicals could be dangerous and even explosive
Problems with Early
with Photography
In 1841, Fox Talbot patents a process he calls
'CALOTYPE,' which creates permanent (negative) images
using paper soaked in silver chloride and fixed with a salt solution. Talbot
created positive images by contact printing
onto another sheet of paper.
The First Negative to Positive Process
In 1888, George Eastman Kodak

develops FILM
, allowing photographers to have something lighter and more portable than metal or glass plates .
In 1900: The
Kodak Brownie
film camera introduced. This is the first camera made for regular people.
Making it Easier and more Accessible
How Photography has Changed the World
Important Early Photographers
`
Alfred Stieglitz
helped elevate Photography to the same level of art as Painting and Sculpture.
In 1902, he organized the "
Photo-Secessionist
" show in New York City. This was the first exhibition judged solely by photographers. Until that time, photographic exhibitions had been judged by painters and other types of artists, many of whom knew little about photography
Matthew Brady
is sometimes called the '
Godfather of Photo-Journalism
. He and his team, created more than 7,000 images that
documented the Civil War,
showing realities and horrors of war for the first time. He also photographed 18 of the 19 American Presidents from John Quincy Adams to William McKinley.
Matthew Brady
Cameron was on of the first photographers to approach photography as an art form
, using soft lighting and Classical poses. Her images were closely framed portraits and illustrative allegories based on religious and literary works.
Julia Margaret
Cameron
Muybridge studied animals and people in motion using serial photography
.

Serial photography led to the development of motion pictures, better known as movies!

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadweard_Muybridge
Allowed for an image-based recording of history / images of real news.
Broadened Cultural Understanding: Allowed people all over the world to see how others live.
Created new forms of Art. Photography is an art in its own right, and it also provides the basis for movies and reference for painters and sculptors.
Is the world's most popular hobby
Eventually led to the x-ray & other medical scans.
Alfred Stieglitz
Edweard Muybridge
Full transcript