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History of Photography

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David West

on 7 September 2017

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Transcript of History of Photography

Photography 1 - Mr. West
A Brief History of Photography
What is Photography?
means 'darkroom'
(Camera = room / obscura = dark)
Image is projected through a pinhole
Used to form images on walls in darkened rooms;
Ancient Times
Camera Obscura
In Latin, literally means "
light writing
(photo = light / graphy = writing)
It is a
l Art Form
Created when LIGHT makes contact
with a
Light sensitive material, which can be a digital imaging sensor or an
on film, paper or a plate.
Photography is the world's most popular hobby!!!
Early Advances
Only projects an image - the only way to capture the image is to trace it by hand.
Image is inverted (upside down) due to
of light
Camera obscuras were frequently
used by artists to trace
images and made portable in the form of sedan chairs.
Brightness and clarity
of camera obscura improved by
enlarging the hole and inserting a lens.
(Lenses were already being used in telescopes.)
1490 Leonardo DaVinci (Italy) First to describe
the camera obscura works the way it does . Also realizes the human eye also works this way. (Our eyes receive image 'upside down', but our brains turn them rightside up!
500 BC - Mo Ti (China)
first known description of camera obscura
330 AD - Aristotle (Greece)
Observed a solar eclipse projecting crescent shapes on the ground as light shines through the small openings created by the leaves of a tree
Professor J. Schulze
accidentally made first photo-sensitive compound
(silver nitrate)
when he mixed chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask. The flask was on his desk, and he noticed that the side of the flash facing the light from the window was darkening.
Thomas Wedgwood
built on Schulze's discovery. He
made the first photographic process
, called
'sun drawing'
by painting the silver nitrate solution on leather, placed an object over the paint, set it in the sun and made silhouette of the object. However, it faded quickly. (This is similar to
Cyantoptypes or Photograms.)
In 1826, Joseph Niépce
made the first "permanent" image
It took
8 hours to expose
the image of a nearby rooftop
The First Permanent Image
Before he died, Niépce created a partnership with
Jacques Daguerre
In 1837, Daguerre developed the process called
This was the first popular and common form of photography.
He demonstrated this process to the public in Paris in 1839.
Images were exposed onto silver copper plates. It brought portraits to the masses and cost only 50 cents.
Photography goes Public

The daguerreotype was
hard to duplicate

It was
and had to be kept inside a case or frame
Required long exposure times.
Plates and equipment were difficult to transport
Chemicals could be dangerous and even explosive
Problems with Early
with Photography
The First Negative to Positive Process
In 1888, George Eastman Kodak

develops FILM
, allowing photographers to have something lighter and more portable than metal or glass plates .

In 1900: The
Kodak Brownie
film camera introduced. This is the first camera made for regular people.
Making Photography Accessible
to Anyone
How Photography has Changed the World
Important Early Photographers
Alfred Stieglitz
helped elevate Photography to the same level of art as Painting and Sculpture.
In 1902, he organized the "
" show in New York City. This was the first exhibition judged solely by photographers. Until that time, photographic exhibitions had been judged by painters and other types of artists, many of whom knew little about photography
Matthew Brady
is sometimes called the '
Godfather of Photo-Journalism
. He and his team, created more than 7,000 images that
documented the Civil War,
showing realities and horrors of war for the first time. He also photographed 18 of the 19 American Presidents from John Quincy Adams to William McKinley.
Matthew Brady
Cameron was on of the first photographers to approach photography as an art form
, using soft lighting and Classical poses. Her images were closely framed portraits and illustrative allegories based on religious and literary works.
Julia Margaret
Muybridge studied animals and people in motion using serial photography

Serial photography led to the development of motion pictures, better known as movies!

Allowed for an image-based recording of history / images of real news.
Broadened Cultural Understanding: Allowed people all over the world to see how others live.
Created new forms of Art. Photography is an art in its own right, and it also provides the basis for movies and reference for painters and sculptors.
Is the world's most popular hobby
Eventually led to the x-ray & other medical scans.
Alfred Stieglitz
Edweard Muybridge
The Birth
of Digital
Steven Sassone
invented the first digital camera at Eastman Kodak in 1975.
It weighed 8 pounds 0.01 megapixels.
The image was recorded in black-and-white onto a cassette tape
The process took 23 seconds.
Photoshop released in 1990: The digital version of a darkroom for photo-editing
- Digital camera sales eclipse film
camera sales

- Nearly all phones have cameras
built into them

.. People upload and share more than
1.8 BILLION pictures per day
In 1841, Fox Talbot patents a process he calls
'CALOTYPE,' which creates permanent (negative) images
using paper soaked in silver chloride and fixed with a salt solution.
created positive images by contact printing
onto another sheet of paper. (This is how we make positives / prints with a pinhole camera.)
The future
of Photography?
Full transcript