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Transcript of SYRIA LEBANON
Monica, & Sheren
1920 short lived Kingdom of Syria est.
Emir Faisal I
Battle of Maysalun
British forces defeat Ottoman
Syrian Arab forces & French
French control of Syria
Syria/France negotiate "treaty"
Syria under control of Vichy France
Syria gains independence April 15 1946
League of Nations Mandate
OUT OF FRENCH MANDATE
State of Greater Lebanon
State of Alawites
State of Jabal Druze
State of Aleppo
Sanjak of Alexandretta
Syrian timeline, CSR Campaign,
& Human Rights Violations
Media in Syria
Ruling with Iron Fist
All content controlled
Turning off electricity
Removal of Emergency Law in April 2012
The Syrian Human Rights Committee described the Emergency Law as "the most repressive law [affecting] the rights and freedoms of all Syrian citizens without exception". (BBC)
Mobile phones make everyone a journalist
Nothing is 100% biased
Captured for 19 days
Marie Colvin and Remi Ochlik
Killed February 22, 2012
Teleinterview aired on CNN
Held captive for 5 days in Syria
Newsweek's Muslim Rage and Islamic Hate
Keep in mind: Real world politics is about much more than what happens online
Internet only documents the revolts
Powerful tool to spread messages:
Blogs, news websites, Twitter, Facebook, Skype reports
February 2011: Citizens given open access to Facebook and YouTube
SOCIAL MEDIA EXAMPLES
The Syrian Revolution 2011
MEDIA IN LEBANON
1962 Press Law
Nothing may be published that endangers national security or insults high-ranking officials
Violators will be sanctioned
1994 Audio-Visual Media Law
Ended state's monopoly over electronic broadcasting
Made Lebanon first country in Middle East to establish regulatory system for permitting private radio & tv to be produced and distributed within its boarders
Media policies set in place to begin recovery from Civil War
10% - 12%
10% but most are also Sunni
April 26: Reports of planes coming from Iraq, bombing rebels
Flow of weapons through Iraq
Chemical Weapons: $2 Million dollars given to investigate chemical weapons in Syria
“Bashar Assad has plunged his country into chaos and is ultimately responsible for any use of chemical weapons that occurs on Syrian territory”
-Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister, John Baird
Wahabi (Sunni like)
Saudi gov't supplying small arms to rebels
Warns its citizens against sending money
Looks to take over influence in Lebanon
Foreign attacks: Iran’s promise
Iranian Revolutionary Guards
Iran has a strong interest in keeping Syria under Shiaa control so it can fund and aid Hezbollah and have interest near Sadi
Hezbollah has a strong interest in keeping Assad in power in order to continue being aided by Iran
Well Organized, some say better than Lebanon's forces, but it relies on Syria and Iran
Israel: A Common enemy
Total US Assistance to Syria
The United States is providing food aid, medical supplies, emergency and basic health care, shelter materials, clean water, hygiene education and supplies, and other relief supplies (including blankets and heaters) to help those affected by the crisis in Syria.
It is unknown what real impact the US has on military initiatives
The "Red Line"
Sarin is a man made nerve gas, one of the most toxic of all chemical weapons.
Clear, colorless, tasteless, and odorless
Small doses: Loss of consciousness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rapid breathing, drooling, increase/drop heart rate and blood pressure.
Large doses: Loss of consciousness, convulsions, paralysis, respiratory failure leading to death.
World bank indicators contrary to reports given by country officials
UN Global Impact Syria formed in 2004, stemmed calculable growth in 2006 to network of representatives
Pushed for dialogue on creating balance between private and public sector employment
Efforts from Assad supporters and wealthy members of committee
UNDP became possible fuel for terrorists plot excuse
General Demographics and Economy
Religions: Sunni Muslim, other Muslim groups (Alawites, Druze), Christian, Jewish
Literacy: Men - 86% Women - 73%
Life Expectancy: Men - 72 Women - 77
Birth Rate: 23.52/1000
Death Rate: 3.67/1000
Unemployment: Men - 15.3% Women - 40%
Blend of various Aramaic speaking groups
Official Language: Arabic
Labor Force: 5.54 Million
Agriculture - 18.1% Industry - 25.3% Services - 56.6%
Population Below Poverty Line: 11.9%
Agriculture (products): Wheat, Barley, Cotton, Lentils, Chickpeas, Olives, Sugar Beets, Beef, Mutton, Eggs, Poultry, Milk
Industries: Petroleum, Textiles, Food Processing, Beverages, Tobacco, Phosphate Rock Mining, Cement, Car Assembly
Exports (commodities): Crude Oil, Minerals, Petroleum Products, Fruits and Vegetables, Cotton Fiber, Textiles, Clothing, Meat and Live Animals, Wheat
Industrial Production Growth Rate: 6%
Exchange Rate: 63.94 SYP per USD
There have been varying reports of chemical weapons used by the Assad forces in recent weeks. There is controversy over the matter, as political players and the media tries to figure out why Assad would use such a tactic on such a small level that is being reported.
2012 March - UN Security Council endorses non-binding peace plan drafted by UN envoy Kofi Annan. China and Russia agree to support the plan after an earlier, tougher draft is modified. The UN statement falls short of a formal resolution, and violence continues into the summer.
Religions: Muslim, Christian, Other
Literacy: Men - 93% Women - 82%
Life Expectancy: Men - 73 Women - 76
Birth Rate: 14.92/1000
Death Rate: 6.63/1000
Unemployment: Men - 22.3% Women - 21.5%
Official Language: Arabic
Labor Force: 1.48 Million
Population Below Poverty Line: 28%
Agriculture (products): Citrus, Grapes, Tomatoes, Apples, Vegetables, Olives, Tobacco, Sheep, Goats
Industries: Banking, Tourism, Food Processing, Wine, Jewelry, Cement, Textiles, Mineral and Chemical Products, Wood and Furniture Products, Oil Refining, Metal Fabricating
Exports (commodities): Jewelry, Base Metals, Chemicals, Fruits and Vegetables, Tobacco, Construction Minerals, Electric Power Machinery and Switchgear, Textile Fibers, Paper
Industrial Production Growth Rate: 2.1%
Exchange Rate: 1,507.5 LBP per USD
Supposed use of chemical weapons
Primary exports are oil, petroleum and commodities such as wheat and cotton
Syria has been subject to U.S. economic sanctions since 2004 under the Syria Accountability Act
Sanctions in August 2008 prohibited the export of U.S. services to Syrian and banned U.S. persons from involvement in the Syrian petroleum sector, including a prohibition on importing Syrian petroleum products
March 2011 - Protests in Damascus and the southern city of Deraa demand the release of political prisoners. Security forces shoot a number of people dead in Deraa, triggering days of violent unrest that steadily spread nationwide over the following months.
2011 May - Army tanks enter Deraa, Banyas, Homs and suburbs of Damascus in an effort to crush anti-regime protests. President Assad announces amnesty for political prisoners. President Assad releases dozens of political prisoners and dismisses the government, and in April lifts the 48-year-old state of emergency. However, he accuses protesters of being Israeli agents.
2011 July - President Assad sacks the governor of the northern province of Hama after mass demonstration there, eventually sending in troops to restore order at the cost of scores of lives. Opposition activists meet in Istanbul to form a unified opposition.
2011 December - Syria agrees to an Arab League initiative allowing Arab observers into the country. Thousand of protesters gather in Homs to greet them, but the League suspends its mission in January because of worsening violence.
2012 August - The government suffers further blows. A UN General Assembly resolution demands that President Assad resign, high-level defections gather pace - most notably Prime Minister Riad Hijab - and US President Obama warns that use of chemical weapons would tilt the US towards intervention.
2012 December - The US joins Britain, France, Turkey and Gulf states in formally recognizing Syria's opposition National Coalition as "the legitimate representative" of the Syrian people. President Obama says the Coalition is now inclusive, reflective and representative enough for this "big step".
Drought coupled with slow economy
Rainfall has averaged between 45 percent and 66 percent less than normal in three eastern provinces during the past two years, according to a February U.N. report
The water shortage is undermining efforts to maintain economic growth in a country where agriculture until recently accounted for about 25 percent of gross domestic product
Estimates range from 70,000 - 80,000 dead due to civil unrest
Syria's violations of UDHR
Article 26.(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
Article 27.(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
Properly educated instructors, teaching materials, adequate facilities for women and girls
Funding by State (Private and Public)
Must be able to ensure Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability, Adaptability in education, in both principle and practice
Weapons inspectors will determine whether banned chemical agents were used in Syrian conflict only if they are able to access sites and take soil, blood, urine or tissue samples and examine them in certified laboratories, according to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, which works with the UN on inspections.
In order to protect states sovereignty must allow UN team access into country in order to examine reports
Sovereignty or stability?
HR violations (kidnapping, education, refugees, food, chemical weapons)
ICRC has been providing water, food, medical materials and other items to millions people affected by the fighting, to help them cope with the situation.
Current Sites in question
Factions: A close divide
Official policy of "disassociation"
US military training of Rebels
King Abdullah, First Arab leader
to confront Assad
Highly concerned over
Skeptical of US intentions
Billions in Defense
2,500 infantry fighting
2,500 self-propelled or towed
325 Tactical aircraft
Nearly 2,000 air defense pieces
Russian Made Military
Zakat and Family
Pillar of Islamic Faith
Supporters of Regime held to keep family bonds
Social network just like any other social society or function
Community of belief
Sovereignty and independence
National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces
The Syrian National Council (SNC)
National Co-ordination Committee (NCC)
The Free Syrian Army