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SYRIA LEBANON

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by

Monica Fogle

on 4 December 2014

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Transcript of SYRIA LEBANON

Economy
(Syria)
SYRIA &
LEBANON

Alice, Curtis,
Monica, & Sheren
General Demographics
History
Media's role/influence
Human Rights
World influences

History
1920 short lived Kingdom of Syria est.
Emir Faisal I

Battle of Maysalun
British forces defeat Ottoman
Syrian Arab forces & French

French control of Syria
SYRIA
FRANCE
Syria/France negotiate "treaty"
never ratified

Syria under control of Vichy France

Syria gains independence April 15 1946
SYRIA'S FIGHT
Sykes-Picot Agreement
King-Crane Commission
League of Nations Mandate
FRENCH MANDATE
STATES CREATED
OUT OF FRENCH MANDATE
State of Greater Lebanon

State of Alawites

State of Jabal Druze

State of Aleppo

Sanjak of Alexandretta
Syrian timeline, CSR Campaign,
& Human Rights Violations

Media in Syria
GOVERNMENT REGULATION
Ruling with Iron Fist
All content controlled
Turning off electricity
Removal of Emergency Law in April 2012
The Syrian Human Rights Committee described the Emergency Law as "the most repressive law [affecting] the rights and freedoms of all Syrian citizens without exception". (BBC)
YOUNG SYRIANS
Mobile phones make everyone a journalist

Nothing is 100% biased
PERSONAL STORIES
Dorothy Parvaz
Al-Jazeera journalist
Captured for 19 days

Marie Colvin and Remi Ochlik
Killed February 22, 2012
Teleinterview aired on CNN

Richard Engel
Held captive for 5 days in Syria
http://www.vanityfair.com/online/daily/2013/03/richard-engel-diary-kidnapping-syria
U.S. MEDIA
Newsweek's Muslim Rage and Islamic Hate
SOCIAL MEDIA
Keep in mind: Real world politics is about much more than what happens online

Internet only documents the revolts

Powerful tool to spread messages:
Blogs, news websites, Twitter, Facebook, Skype reports

February 2011: Citizens given open access to Facebook and YouTube
SOCIAL MEDIA EXAMPLES
The Syrian Revolution 2011

https://www.facebook.com/SyrianRevolution2?fref=ts

Tumblr

http://www.tumblr.com/tagged/free%20syria
MEDIA IN LEBANON


1962 Press Law
Nothing may be published that endangers national security or insults high-ranking officials
Violators will be sanctioned

1994 Audio-Visual Media Law
Ended state's monopoly over electronic broadcasting
Made Lebanon first country in Middle East to establish regulatory system for permitting private radio & tv to be produced and distributed within its boarders
Media policies set in place to begin recovery from Civil War
World View
#Syria
SUNNI
74%
SHIA'A
13% Shia'a

Alawites
Twelvers
Ismailis
Zaydis
Allies
CHRISTIANS
10% - 12%
KURDS
10% but most are also Sunni
DRUZE
3% Druze
Shiaa--Baath Party
Open doors

April 26: Reports of planes coming from Iraq, bombing rebels

Flow of weapons through Iraq
IRAQ
CANADA
Chemical Weapons: $2 Million dollars given to investigate chemical weapons in Syria

“Bashar Assad has plunged his country into chaos and is ultimately responsible for any use of chemical weapons that occurs on Syrian territory”
-Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister, John Baird
Who's Who
SAUDI ARABIA
Wahabi (Sunni like)
Saudi gov't supplying small arms to rebels

Warns its citizens against sending money

Looks to take over influence in Lebanon
IRAN
Pro-Assad regime

Shiaa


Foreign attacks: Iran’s promise

Iranian Revolutionary Guards

Iran has a strong interest in keeping Syria under Shiaa control so it can fund and aid Hezbollah and have interest near Sadi
HEZBOLLAH
Lebanese-Shiaa
Damascus safe-house

Hezbollah has a strong interest in keeping Assad in power in order to continue being aided by Iran

Well Organized, some say better than Lebanon's forces, but it relies on Syria and Iran

Israel: A Common enemy
RUSSIA
CHINA
UNITED STATES

Total US Assistance to Syria
$384,474,239
The United States is providing food aid, medical supplies, emergency and basic health care, shelter materials, clean water, hygiene education and supplies, and other relief supplies (including blankets and heaters) to help those affected by the crisis in Syria.

It is unknown what real impact the US has on military initiatives
TURKEY

The Border

Diplomacy
LEBANON
JORDAN
The "Red Line"
Sarin
Sarin is a man made nerve gas, one of the most toxic of all chemical weapons.

Clear, colorless, tasteless, and odorless

Small doses: Loss of consciousness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rapid breathing, drooling, increase/drop heart rate and blood pressure.

Large doses: Loss of consciousness, convulsions, paralysis, respiratory failure leading to death.
Art
Maps
Agriculture
ECONOMY
World bank indicators contrary to reports given by country officials
CSR Campaign
UN Global Impact Syria formed in 2004, stemmed calculable growth in 2006 to network of representatives
Pushed for dialogue on creating balance between private and public sector employment
Efforts from Assad supporters and wealthy members of committee
UNDP became possible fuel for terrorists plot excuse
Timeline
http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2013/04/syria-in-ruins/100488/
General Demographics and Economy
Demographics
(Syria)
Population: 22,530,746

Religions: Sunni Muslim, other Muslim groups (Alawites, Druze), Christian, Jewish

Literacy: Men - 86% Women - 73%

Life Expectancy: Men - 72 Women - 77

Birth Rate: 23.52/1000

Death Rate: 3.67/1000

Unemployment: Men - 15.3% Women - 40%

Blend of various Aramaic speaking groups

Official Language: Arabic
Labor Force: 5.54 Million
Agriculture - 18.1% Industry - 25.3% Services - 56.6%

Population Below Poverty Line: 11.9%

Agriculture (products): Wheat, Barley, Cotton, Lentils, Chickpeas, Olives, Sugar Beets, Beef, Mutton, Eggs, Poultry, Milk

Industries: Petroleum, Textiles, Food Processing, Beverages, Tobacco, Phosphate Rock Mining, Cement, Car Assembly

Exports (commodities): Crude Oil, Minerals, Petroleum Products, Fruits and Vegetables, Cotton Fiber, Textiles, Clothing, Meat and Live Animals, Wheat

Industrial Production Growth Rate: 6%

Exchange Rate: 63.94 SYP per USD
Factions
There have been varying reports of chemical weapons used by the Assad forces in recent weeks. There is controversy over the matter, as political players and the media tries to figure out why Assad would use such a tactic on such a small level that is being reported.
Timeline continued...
2012 March - UN Security Council endorses non-binding peace plan drafted by UN envoy Kofi Annan. China and Russia agree to support the plan after an earlier, tougher draft is modified. The UN statement falls short of a formal resolution, and violence continues into the summer.
Demographics
(Lebanon)
Economy
(Lebanon)
Population: 4,131,583

Religions: Muslim, Christian, Other

Literacy: Men - 93% Women - 82%

Life Expectancy: Men - 73 Women - 76

Birth Rate: 14.92/1000

Death Rate: 6.63/1000

Unemployment: Men - 22.3% Women - 21.5%

Official Language: Arabic
Labor Force: 1.48 Million

Population Below Poverty Line: 28%

Agriculture (products): Citrus, Grapes, Tomatoes, Apples, Vegetables, Olives, Tobacco, Sheep, Goats

Industries: Banking, Tourism, Food Processing, Wine, Jewelry, Cement, Textiles, Mineral and Chemical Products, Wood and Furniture Products, Oil Refining, Metal Fabricating

Exports (commodities): Jewelry, Base Metals, Chemicals, Fruits and Vegetables, Tobacco, Construction Minerals, Electric Power Machinery and Switchgear, Textile Fibers, Paper

Industrial Production Growth Rate: 2.1%

Exchange Rate: 1,507.5 LBP per USD
Failed State?
Supposed use of chemical weapons
Primary exports are oil, petroleum and commodities such as wheat and cotton
Syria has been subject to U.S. economic sanctions since 2004 under the Syria Accountability Act
Sanctions in August 2008 prohibited the export of U.S. services to Syrian and banned U.S. persons from involvement in the Syrian petroleum sector, including a prohibition on importing Syrian petroleum products
March 2011 - Protests in Damascus and the southern city of Deraa demand the release of political prisoners. Security forces shoot a number of people dead in Deraa, triggering days of violent unrest that steadily spread nationwide over the following months.
2011 May - Army tanks enter Deraa, Banyas, Homs and suburbs of Damascus in an effort to crush anti-regime protests. President Assad announces amnesty for political prisoners. President Assad releases dozens of political prisoners and dismisses the government, and in April lifts the 48-year-old state of emergency. However, he accuses protesters of being Israeli agents.
2011 July - President Assad sacks the governor of the northern province of Hama after mass demonstration there, eventually sending in troops to restore order at the cost of scores of lives. Opposition activists meet in Istanbul to form a unified opposition.
2011 December - Syria agrees to an Arab League initiative allowing Arab observers into the country. Thousand of protesters gather in Homs to greet them, but the League suspends its mission in January because of worsening violence.
2012 August - The government suffers further blows. A UN General Assembly resolution demands that President Assad resign, high-level defections gather pace - most notably Prime Minister Riad Hijab - and US President Obama warns that use of chemical weapons would tilt the US towards intervention.
2012 December - The US joins Britain, France, Turkey and Gulf states in formally recognizing Syria's opposition National Coalition as "the legitimate representative" of the Syrian people. President Obama says the Coalition is now inclusive, reflective and representative enough for this "big step".
Water Crisis
Drought coupled with slow economy
Rainfall has averaged between 45 percent and 66 percent less than normal in three eastern provinces during the past two years, according to a February U.N. report
The water shortage is undermining efforts to maintain economic growth in a country where agriculture until recently accounted for about 25 percent of gross domestic product
Estimates range from 70,000 - 80,000 dead due to civil unrest
http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/headlines/2013/04/as-casualties-mount-in-syria-children-tend-to-the-wounded/
News Clip
Syria's violations of UDHR
Article 26.(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
Education
Article 27.(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
Needs
Properly educated instructors, teaching materials, adequate facilities for women and girls
Funding by State (Private and Public)
Must be able to ensure Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability, Adaptability in education, in both principle and practice
Intervention?
Weapons inspectors will determine whether banned chemical agents were used in Syrian conflict only if they are able to access sites and take soil, blood, urine or tissue samples and examine them in certified laboratories, according to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, which works with the UN on inspections.
In order to protect states sovereignty must allow UN team access into country in order to examine reports
Sovereignty or stability?
Syria
Israel
Other violations
HR violations (kidnapping, education, refugees, food, chemical weapons)
ICRC has been providing water, food, medical materials and other items to millions people affected by the fighting, to help them cope with the situation.
Current Sites in question
Factions: A close divide
Official policy of "disassociation"
US military training of Rebels
King Abdullah, First Arab leader
to confront Assad
Highly concerned over
extremist groups
Pro-Western Monarchy
Skeptical of US intentions
Double Standards
Billions in Defense
5,000 tanks
2,500 infantry fighting
vehicles
2,500 self-propelled or towed
artillery units
325 Tactical aircraft
143 helicopters
Nearly 2,000 air defense pieces
Russian Made Military
Zakat and Family
Pillar of Islamic Faith
Supporters of Regime held to keep family bonds
Social network just like any other social society or function
Community of belief
Jasmine Revolution

Sovereignty and independence
Likely?
Assad
Rebels
China
Russia
Iran
Hezzbollah
Iraq
United States
Saudi Arabia
Canada
Europe
Jordan
Turkey
The Rebels
National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces

The Syrian National Council (SNC)

National Co-ordination Committee (NCC)

The Free Syrian Army
Full transcript