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Western Civ 16 Ending the War, Starting a New One
Transcript of Western Civ 16 Ending the War, Starting a New One
The rise of underground revolutionary parties.
The increasing radicalization of a rising urban worker class.
The First World War
The Roots of the Russian Revolution
Feb. 1917, order breaks down.
Dual Power is held by the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet.
Both sides fight for power.
1917, the Germans put Lenin and other exiled dissidents on a train to Russia.
Lenin and his Bolsheviks immediately begin to agitate against the war, for bread and peace.
October 10 1917, Lenin urges the Bolsheviks to seize power.
October 25-26, Bolshevik forces occupy strategic points at Petrograd.
The October Revolution
It begins as a multiparty state.
But by 1918, Lenin and the Bolsheviks begin to seize power.
Russia – a Soviet Republic
The royal family is executed.
Most importantly, Lenin pulls Russia out of the War.
This is really good for the Germans...
preparing for war.
The Germans transfer their troops to the Western front for an assault on the Allies.
But during that time, the Americans under General John Pershing had also mobilized to the western front.
The 1918 German offensive was barely stopped by the Americans outside of Paris.
Then the Allies began their counteroffensive.
They had new technologies and new strategies...
By Early November, the command structure of the German and Austrian Empires began to fall apart.
The Kaiser abdicated and fled to the Netherlands.
Delegates meet to sign the Versailles Treaty.
The Versailles Conference was convened to make peace and prevent further war.
There was a widespread belief that the Allies leaders had a plan to make war a thing of the past. This was embodied in President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points.
Versailles and the Paris Peace Conference
The price of war?
The gains of war?
They wanted a harsh peace
Germany was ultimately not invited to Versailles. Germany later called this a diktat.
But the French and British are not interested in moderation.
Crowds outside Versailles
The territorial settlement
Germany loses significant amounts of territory (Alsace-Lorraine, the Rhineland, East Prussia), population, natural resources, and industry.
The collapse of Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman empire, Polish independence, the creation of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia
The military settlement
German loses their military
The economic provisions
They are required to make vast reparation payments.
The War Guilt Clause.
The Versailles Settlement
The Germans are summoned to sign the Treaty.
The Consequences of Versailles?
the Spanish flu.
What will become of Europe?
Economies in turmoil
The consequences of the financial crisis of 1923?
And yet there is recovery....
But mostly, it's all on credit
The post-war buying spree, led to a boom market in 1928.
But it is all based on a shakey foundation.
Europe, and especially Germany, is hit hard.
The Great Depression
And the consequences?
Ending one war and
1. Open Covenants of Peace
2. Freedom of the Seas
3. Free Trade
5. Impartial Arbitration of Colonial Disputes
6. Russian self-determination
7. Belgian self-determination
8. Germans out of France and Alcase Lorraine
9. Adjustment of Italian-Austrian frontier
10. Autonomy for Hungary
11. Independence for Romania, Servia, Montenegro
12. Autonomy for non-Turks in the Ottoman Empire
13. Polish Independence
14. The League of Nations
The Fourteen Points
The U.S. insists that Europe pay back its debt.
German economic collapse, 1923