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PLATO VS. IMMANUEL KANT
Transcript of PLATO VS. IMMANUEL KANT
IMMANUEL KANT 1725-1804
known as a Prussian Philosopher
one of the greatest figure on the history of Metaphysics
according to Kant, his reading of Hume woke him from is dogmatic slumber and made him into a "critical philosopher"
Kant proposed tha tobjectice reality is known only insofar as it conforms to the essential structure of the knowing mind.
The Existence of such unknowable "things-in themselves' can be neither confirmed nor denied, nor can be scientifically demonstrated.
Critique of Pure Reason 1781, the greatest problems of metaphysics-the existence of God, freedom, and immortality- are insoluble by scientific thought.
Yet he went to state in Critique of Practical Reason 1788 that mortality requires belief in their existence.
Kant's Ethics centers in his categorical imperative, or absolute moral law.
Kant's influence on modern philosophy has continued to this present day.
Morals and Ethics Plato
Plato's ethics are virtue-based and eudaimonistic, like that of most Ancient Greek philosophers
Ancient Greek ethics wasn't concerned so much with how we should act it was more with ho we should live.
it was more prudential ( concerned with well-being) that it was moral
were more concerned with how people should live their lives in order to be happy than they were with fighting out what the difference between right and wrong was.
Plato believe that this could be achieved through the cultivation of various virtues and the elimination of vices.
Virtue ethics was bout developing a strong character, which often involved developing typically moral characteristic like bravery and compassion.
it was argues that developing good character will allow you to act well without having to think about it-a moral personal does the right thing instinctively.
Therefore, it's better to focus on becoming a good person, rather than trying to think rationally about the right thing to do in any given reason
Plato says that Virtue consists in the harmony of the human soul with the universe of Ideas, which assure order, intelligence, and pattern to a world in constant flux.
In Plato's various dialogues he touched upon virtually every problem that has occupied subsequent philosophers.
Plato's teachings have been among the most influential in the history of Western civilization, and his works are counted among the world's finest literature.
PLATO 428/427 or 423? B.C
Kant And Plato Contrast
PLATONIC AND KANTIAN ETHICS
Kant thought that the way to make the best decisions in life was to take the time to think them through rationally
Plato may well have argues that we often don't have time to stop and think every time to think every time we have to make an important decision.
A lot of time we have to rely on our instincts, so they should be our focus- train yourself to be a good person, an you will act the right way without having to think about it first.
Kantian ethics and virtues ethics are not mutually exclusive.
Rationally examine moral situations can be a valuable tool in developing virtue.
The real difference lies in the focus of each theory; one looks at a person's actions, whilst the other looks at the person.
A person could adopt a fairly Platonic virtue ethic and decide that it is virtuous to know the difference between right and wrong, and then use Kant's categorical imperative to help them with this.
Morals and Ethics Kant
Kants ethical/ more philosophy is deontological (rule based)
and normative (concerened with establishing the difference between right and wrong and creating moral rules, as opposed to, for instance practical ethics which looks at individual moral dilemmas and tries to figure out what the ethically correct response might be),
values autonomy ( so everyone should arrive at his conclusions by exercising their won reason, rather than simply taking his word for it)
holds that people can never be used as a means to an end (you cant kill or manipulate people "for the greater good")
and holds that rationality is the key to making the right decisions in the ethical situations.
It is often praised for the fact it provides people with a relatively simple decison-making procedure that they can use when an ethical decision needs to be made and critized for its rigidity and lack of emotion.
was known as a greek philosopher
was known as a pupil of and a friend of Socrates.
Plato's extant work is in the form of epistles and dialogues, divided according to the probable order of composition.
His early dialogues present Socrates in conversations that illustrate his major ideas-the unity of virtue and knowledge and of virtue and happiness.
Plato's goal in dialogues of the middle years was to show the rational relationship between the soul, the state, and the cosmos.
His later dialogues contain treatises on law, mathematics, technical philosophic problems, and natural science.
Plato regarded the rational soul as immortal, and he believed ina world soul and Demiurge, the creator of the physical world.
He argued for the independent reality of Ideas, or Forms, as the immutable archetypes of all temporal phenomena and as the only guarantee of ethical standards of objective scientific knowledge.