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Special Characteristics of Travel and Tourism Marketing
Transcript of Special Characteristics of Travel and Tourism Marketing
1. Production and sale of purpose-designed, repeatable, quality controlled products.
2. Typically heavily branded with advertising support and bearing standards prices(with variations by place and time).
3. Products available at many places.
4. Continuous production and availability throughout the year.
Large-scale service operations dominate travel and tourism marketing
It is not easy to define the point at which service producer becomes a large-scale operator; it tends to vary in different sectors of industry acording to thenature of their operations. Large-scale operations in all parts of the world, however, usually display the following common characteristics:
marketing goods and services
The origins of marketing theory are generally attributed to the USA in the first part of the twentieth century. The early contributions to the study recognized the growing importance of sales and distribution functions for manufacturers of consumer goods. They reflected opportunities provided by rapid improvements in rail and road transport and telephone communications systems.
For over 50 years the emerging theories focused almost exclusively on the marketing of physical goods, especially on the marketing of items manufactured on a mass-production basis for mass consumption by the general public.
Until the 1970's the significance of service industries and service marketing generally were largely ignored on both sides of the Atlantic. Or they were discussed in crude simplifications, which lumped together as one broad category personal and public services.
5. Most marketing undertaken by corporate head offices, which control and direct the activities at individual outlets.
Not to be confused with mass consumption
A primary reason for the growth of service organizations is the search for lower unit costs of production.
It is the fact of large-scale continuous production of many service products that provides the essential 'like with like' comparison with manufactured products. Of course, this characteristics has little if anything to do with most lawyers, undertakers, cobblers or beauticians. But then neither has it any relevance to basket weavers, jobbing potters, saddle makers or gunsmiths. A dentist and a street corner shoe shiner have more in common (in marketing terms) with each other and with bakers and candle-stick makers, than any of them have in common with large scale producers of either goods or services. (Middleton, 1983)
Paradoxically, the vast number of small businesses is also a dominating characteristics of the tourism industry.
At their best, small businesses reflect most of the features and characteristics that are unique to the tourism destinations in which they operate. The sector has vibrancy and originality and can play a vital leading edge role in delivering excellence with personality that big businesses cannot replicate. At worst, however, small businesses make survival decisions that physically degrade the destination image and draw in the lowest spending clientele. (Middleton, INSIGHTS, 1997)
There is a broad consensus in Europe that small and medium-sized enterprises, commonly known as SME's, play a vital part in the economic, social and environmental life of European Union(EU) member states.
Compromising less than 250 employees.
2.5 million such enterprises actively trading within European tourism at the end of 1990's
Micro-businesses typically express the local character of a destination through their operations, and in many ways also help to sustain that character and communicate it to visitors.
They influence the perceived visual quality of the built and natural landscape by their actions and the buildings they use.
Their operations impact daily upon local sustainability issues and they are required to implement government requirements for health and safety and environmental good practice, bearing proportionally higher costs than larger businesses.
Some Marketing Implications
The sheer number of enterprises involved in all countries makes micro-businesses a core, not peripheral part of the experience of almost all tourists.
Services and their characteristics
The essential difference between goods and services, as noted by Rathmell in one of the earlier contributions to the subject, is that
" Goods are produced. Services are performed"